SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-ICT PART ONLINE U
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
ICT SHORT SUMMARIES AND REVISION QUESTIONS
SMART COMPUTING PUBLISHERS.
4 UP TO 6
First and foremost, praises and thanks to God, the Almighty, for His showers of blessings
throughout this work .
I would like to express my deep and sincere gratitude to my research reference guider
Professor Vassen (computing Technologies), S.Ngenzi M.Sc. Education,
Sr.Jadwiga WUDARCZYK CR (MSc), Dinesh Thakur who holds an B.C.A, MCSE, MCDBA,
CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular Computer Notes
I am extremely grateful to my parents for their love, prayers, caring and sacrifices for
educating and preparing me for my future. Also I express my thanks to my sisters, brother
for their support and valuable prayers.
My Special thanks goes to my friend brother J. Perich (expert in computer science) for the
keen interest shown to complete this work successfully.
Finally, my thanks go to all the people who have supported me to complete the research work
directly or indirectly. May God bless you all !
References made from Tanzania Institute of Education instructional materials and syllabus.
And other references from different trusted sources mention above.
Copyright © E.Solomon.P. (BED TE, )
(Expert in Education and Information and communication Technology.)
We have the pleasure to offer you a new collection of textbooks as from grade one up to six.
These handout have been written by experienced ICT Support Officers, Teachers and other
different experts. We have done our best to ensure that children undergo a pleasant
learning experience. These handout will help the learner to master effectively different
concepts of science and technology especially in ICT part.
NB: The handout are also suitable for all who wish to learn about ICT.
We hope that you enjoy this material and wish you lots of success
Introduction to communication
The Internet technology
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER
Introduction to computer hardware
Introduction to computer software
HEALTH, SAFETY AND ETHICS
Turning ON and OFF the computer
File and folders
WORD PROCESSING PROGRAM.
Starting and closing
Using word processing program
Starting spreadsheet program
Using spreadsheet program
Types and means of communication
Introduction and different definition
INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION
Functions and formulas
THE INTERNET TECHNOLOGY.
oIntroduction to computer network
1 - 18
19 - 31
32 - 43
44 - 57
58 - 66
67 - 74
oThe history of internet
oInternet connectivity requirements
oDo’s and Don’ts while using the internet technology
- MS OFFICE SUMMARY AND REVISION QUESTIONS
Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
It is a study of information an communication technology.
The ICT also helps pupils to develop more skills,knowledge,ideas ,in their daily life.
Communication is the ability of sharing ideas,views,and different Knowledge among people.
Communication can be through.
Face to face
Written materials such as newspaper, examinations, books
Devices. Such as radio, telephone, computer, television etc.
Information refers to the complete message.
- It is a complete fact(s)
- It is a processed data.
- facts or details about a person, company, product, etc.:
Example: -Tomorrow we shall do a test or
-The class teacher is sick
Technology is to study on how things work Example:
-How can a person talk to the telephone?
-How something can appears on television?
-How sound waves can be received in the radio etc.
The application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes, especially in industry.
Machinery and equipment developed from the application of scientific knowledge
There for ICT refers to technologies that provide access to information through telecommunications. It is similar to
Information Technology (IT), but focuses primarily on communication technologies. This includes the Internet, wireless
networks, cell phones, and other communication mediums.
In the past few decades, information and communication technologies have provided society with a vast array of new
communication capabilities. For example, people can communicate in real-time with others in different countries using
technologies such as instant messaging, voice over IP (VoIP),and video-conferencing. Social networking websites like
Facebook allow users from all over the world to remain in contact and communicate on a regular basis.
Modern information and communication technologies have created a "global village," in which people can communicate with
others across the world as if they were living next door. For this reason, ICT is often studied in the context of how
modern communication technologies affect society.
TELEVISION ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNALS
Samples of Antenna
Perhaps the most common reason to use digital TV decoder is to receive improved sound and picture
quality, much better than what the former analog process offered. In many countries, the government
has made the decision to switch to all-digital broadcasting in an effort to free up parts of the
broadcast spectrum; because of this switch, it has become necessary for residents of many countries
to purchase a digital TV decoder in order to watch TV, as analog stations are no longer available. This
switch to digital-only serves many purposes: more channels will be free to be used by public safety
departments, and unused portions of the spectrum can be auctioned off to wireless companies for
uses such as wireless broadband.
In 1996, the US Congress passed a law that gave additional broadcast channels to each TV station, so
that they could begin broadcasting in digital as well as analog. As of 13 June 2009, all television signals
in the United States were required to be broadcast in digital, thereby making some older television
sets obsolete without use of a decoder. Many countries in South America and Europe have chosen to
broadcast both analog and digital signals, until a full conversion can be made; other countries in
Europe, such as the Netherlands and Finland, have completely switched to digital only, and other
countries have not yet started the conversion process. It is possible to find maps and timelines
regarding which countries will transition to digital television, which transitions will require the use of a
digital TV decoder, and the deadlines for the transitions to take place.
Proper Set Up
Hooking up a digital TV decoder to an analog television set will require a television antenna. The
antenna wires will be connected to the back of the converter box in the jack, or screws, labeled
“antenna.” The converter box must then be connected to the television. Most digital TV decoders
offer either red, white and yellow RCA jacks, or a screw-in type coaxial cable. Whichever method a
particular digital TV decoder is designed to accommodate, the cables will need to be connected into
the related TV input. Finally, the decoder must be plugged into the wall and powered on.
Digital TV decoders that use RCA inputs will require the TV to be set to the auxiliary input channel, or
if coaxial cables are used, the television will typically need to be tuned to channel three or four. The
remote control associated with the digital TV decoder must be used, as opposed to the regular TV
remote, but, the television remote control will be required to adjust the volume and to turn the TV on
HOW A COMPUTER WORKS?
A computer takes in data, processes the data and then gives out information.
o Data is what we give to the computer. It is also known as input.
o Process is what the computer does with the input data.
o Information is what the computer gives back to us after processing.
It is also known as output.
We use input devices to give data to the computer.
Examples of Input Devices
We use output devices to get information from the computer.
Examples of Output Devices
Are the devices that convert data to information. Also it is a brain of a computer.
Are the devices that keeps data and information
Hard disk drive
To work with a spreadsheet software.
By the end of this unit, the pupil will be able to explain:
What is the spreadsheet, and spreadsheet program?
Uses of spreadsheet program
How to star a spreadsheet program
Parts of spreadsheet program
How to use the electronic spreadsheet program
Formulas and functions
Advantages and disadvantages of spreadsheet program.
What is a Spreadsheet?
-A Spreadsheet consists of rows and columns which intersect to form a cell.
-A spreadsheet is a grid of columns and rows which intersect to generate cells.
A B C D
/NAME OF ACELL
Some examples of Spreadsheet programs are:
Microsoft Office Excel
Open Office Calc
A spreadsheet program is an interactive computer application for organization, analysis
and storage of data in tabular form. Spreadsheets programs were developed as
computerized analogs of paper accounting worksheets. The program operates on data
entered in cells of a table.
Summary: Difference Between Word Processing Software and Spreadsheet Software is
that Word processing software, sometimes called a word processor, allows users to
create and manipulate documents containing mostly text and sometimes graphics.
While Spreadsheet software allows users to organize data in rows and columns and
perform calculations on the data. These rows and columns collectively are called a
To use a web browser to access a website.
By the end of this unit, the pupil will be able to:
Explain what is the Internet
Internet connectivity requirements
List the Do’s and Don’ts when using the Internet
Locate the address bar
Access a website using a web address
Advantages and disadvantages of Internet
I: INTERNET TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY
The word Internet comes from two words which are “Inter” and “Net” where inter implies
interconnection and net implies network.
Network –Is the connection of two or more computing devices linked/connected together in
order to share information and resources.
Examples of shared resources in the computer network.
The INTERNET was developed in the United States by the "United States Department of
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency" (DARPA). It was first connected in October,
1969, and was called ARPANET. The World Wide Web was created at CERN in Switzerland
in 1990 by a British (UK) man named Tim Berners-Lee.
I: INTERNET TECHNOLOGY DEFINITIONS
-A global computer network providing a variety of information and communication facilities,
consisting of interconnected networks using standardized communication protocols.
-Is a network of networks that interconnect millions of computers and makes the
Communication to be globally.
-Is the networking technology that interconnect millions of local area networks and makes
the communication to be globally.
SUMMARY :HOW TO ACCESS WEBSITES
For most people nowadays, using the internet involves accessing information or
entertainment, viewing products and services, or using social media platforms to keep in
touch with friends and acquaintances. It may seem that visiting a webpage merely
involves entering the URL in the address bar, but that’s just the start of a more
complicated process. In a split second the browser makes contact with globally
distributed web servers, requests stored data packages, and then assembles the
webpage from the information contained in the packages. Read on to find out how this
process works and which steps are taken
The World Wide Web (WWW) is a system of electronically stored hypertext documents. The
hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) is used in the World Wide Web in order to transfer webpage data
from the web server to the browser. In addition to HTTP, there’s also an encrypted version of the
protocol: Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS). The HTTP protocol header is followed by the
hostname, which consists of a second-level and top-level domain (in this order). In the web, we usually
see “www” as third-level domain, but there are other subdomains. If a URL points to a specific
directory or file, the relevant information will be placed after the hostname.
Every website has an address.
We call it a web address.
The web address is found in the
address bar at the top of a website.
Some examples of web addresses are:
You can press the following shortcuts to
edit Ctrl+l or Alt+D
10. The Science and technology teacher marked the students activities and their scores as follows
Write down a formula that will help you to fill in the empty cell on adjustment scores after
realize that she or he had to fill 1/3 of the original scores using an Excel program.
EXERCISE. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.
When two or more computers are connected for the purpose of communicating what do
(A) Modem (B) Television
How many major types of computer network? __________(
According to new syllabus of science and technology how many major types of computer
network that you learnt with regard to geographical area?
LAN and WAN
MAN and LAM
VAN and BAN
Which among the following sentences explains the advantages of a computer network?
(A) Provide fast and effective communication
(B) Increases immorality in a society
(C) Copies bad behavior.
Which among the following is the long form of LAN
(A) Large area network
(B) Local Area Network
(C) Long area Network
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