FRAMEWORK & ACCESS
ANALYSIS OF EXISTING SITUATION
IInd Edition, 2020-21
LIFE EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT
LEADS : AN INTRODUCTION
BACKDROP OF LEADS
“Life Education and Development Support” (LEADS) is a voluntary non-profit organization registered under the Indian Trust Act (1882) in
2005. Our aim is to promote social inclusion and democratic governance so that the vulnerable sections of society are empowered to
effectively and decisively participate in mainstream development and decision making processes. LEADS have all legal registration
(including FCRA) required running the organization. LEADS was established with the purpose to create some developmental model by
unfolding human potentials, which is the core element of sustainability and replicate such models with the support of Govt. and other
developmental organizations. LEADS work at the field level in partnership with local civil society and people's organizations. The collective
experience, learning and insight enable us to work on knowledge building, training and advocacy. All initiatives are executed in a framework
of collaboration and partnership to empower people for demanding their entitlements and enable the service providers, including the
government, to deliver in a transparent and accountable manner. Since its inception, LEADS has planned to intervene at five levels:
Intervention at community level
Networking of like minded organizations on issues like, Education, Livelihood, Governance, Budget Tracking, Health and Nutrition,
Social Security etc.
Issue based lobby and advocacy at community, block, district, state and national level platforms
Research and Publication to generate evidences for pro-people policy advocacy
Promotional and consultancy support to other developmental actors
LEADS believe in potential of human being irrespective of caste, creed, religion and sex. Every individual has varieties of inner qualities,
which can be promoted and utilized in the greater interest of humanity through appropriate life education and development support.
Ensuring rights of every individual will provide ample scope for development of all sections of society, which will further help in unfolding
human potentials and building confidence of poor and marginalized communities. The organization plans its intervention on the basis of its
development understanding and ideology.
CORE GUIDING PRINCIPLE
Participatory Decision Making is Practiced from Community to organizational Level
Decentralized structure for enhancing efficiency and effectiveness of the program
Team work within the organization with specific roles and responsibility
Promotion of Leadership both at Community and Organizational level to ensure sustainability
To create an inclusive society where all stakeholders, particularly the vulnerable, participate with full empowerment and gain equal access
to and control over services, resources and institutions. The values like mutual respect and cooperation, participation, trust and
brotherhood, gender equity, peace and justice will prevail and be practiced in the society. Environment will be free from all sorts of
Our mission is to make real the idea of a society consisting of free and equal citizens who are able to come together to solve the problems
that affect them in their particular contexts. The commitment is to work for a paradigm of development and governance that is democratic
and polyarchic. We seek to institutionalize the idea that development and governance should not just be left to the state and its formal
bodies, such as the legislature and the bureaucracy, but that citizens and their associations should engage separately and jointly with the
LEADS believe in people's knowledge, skills and experience. LEADS is committed to give strategic thrust on the issues like: Empowering
Tribal Community, Providing Life Education to Children and Adolescent, Women Empowerment, Livelihood Support to Poor and
Marginalized, Natural Resource Promotion, Technical Skill Up Gradation for Employment Generation, Health etc. to bring appropriate
changes and promote dignified life of poor and marginalized people of the society. Rights based intervention through participatory
approach will be core commitment of LEADS.
OUR REFERRAL PEOPLE
Ultra Poor, Vulnerable groups like Scheduled Tribes, Scheduled Caste, Other Backward Caste, Women and Children, Disable Persons etc.
GEOGRAPHICAL AREA OF OPERATION
LEADS is directly working in more than 1600 villages of Jharkhand, covering the districts of Khunti, West Singhbhum, Latehar, Ramgarh,
Hazaribahg, Ranchi, Simdega & Saraikela Kharsawa. In addition to that, Lobby and Advocacy is taken up across the State through network
FRAMEWORK AND ACCESS
ANALYSIS OF EXISTING SITUATION IN JHARKHAND
IInd Edition, 2020-21
Situational Analysis Report Under
Life Educa on and Development Support
203, Shree Maa Apartment, PN Bose Compound
Purulia Road Ranchi, Jharkhand, Emailfirstname.lastname@example.org
DESI Technology Solu ons,
Mass Communica on
Sr. Program Manager
District Program Manager
A K Singh
LEADS has published this report. Despite every eﬀort has been taken to avoid errors or omissions,
there may s ll be chances for such errors and omissions. LEADS is not responsible for such errors
and omissions or damage to any persons on the basis of this report.
We wish to acknowledge the inspira on and encouragement received from
number of dis nguished persons without whose help it would have been diﬃcult to
complete second edi on of this report. We would extend our gra tude to the
government departments and ins tu ons/ agencies working in this ﬁeld. Our
immense gra tude from the depth of our heart to the community members of our
interven on area, School Management Commi ee, Self Help Groups & the
Panchaya Raj Ins tu ons, during the course of this analysis. Their coopera on has
helped us to complete this research work successfully within the s pulated
meframe. The CSOs network with JREDA has been of immense help in developing
policy sugges ons as well as improved implementa on for this edi on.
We thank our donor partner European Union who's support and coopera on
helped us in every step in carrying out the exercise. We also express our
appreciation to the community mobilisers and staﬀ who are working intensively in
the ﬁeld areas. We express our sincere thanks to the program persons of the
partner organiza on for their timely supervision and ac on which was extended
throughout the study.
A. K. Singh
Sustainability of the planet has been the hot topic of this millennium. Mul tude of a empts has been made
to ensure sustainable development. Sustainable Development Goal – 7 aims to ensure access to aﬀordable,
reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all. India too through its Na onal Ac on Plan for Climate
Change, to Millennium Development Goal commitments to SDG commitments, has made a empts to
contribute to this global cause.
The commitments have found policy narra ve and the targets have gone on to be revised rather quickly.
Meanwhile the development in the renewable energy sector too has been fast paced and further
contributes to achieving these commitments. Under Na onal Ac on Plan on Climate Change, India set a
target of 20 GW of energy produc on through renewables by 2020. This was revised to 100GW in 2015 and
to 175GW in 2019. Meanwhile India surpassed the original target of 20GW in 2018 itself, 4 years ahead of
2022. The pace of adop on of renewables has been varied, and a reﬂec on of resource curse appears in this
sector as well.
The second edi on of this document studies the condi on of adop on of renewables in the mineral rich
state of Jharkhand and draws a comparison with India's policy commitments. Though the targets have been
upwardly revised but the ground reality of ﬁnal commissioning of these power plants, and changing the
lives of the people through adop on of renewable energy sources have been limited. Jharkhand has
installed only 47 MW of renewable energy capacity against the Indian capacity of 87 GW of nonconven onal capacity addi on.
LEADS with the support of European Union is assis ng in realisa on of government's renewable energy
projects in the district of Simdega, Gumla, Ranchi and Khun . With LEADS and its network of likeminded
CSOs interven on not just not just programs are being implemented but policy level sugges ons too have
been made which have been accepted and dra policies rela ng to mini-grid and cold storage chain is being
The document tries to capture the progress in adop on of na onal policies as well as the short comings in
their implementa on. The document also captures the ﬁeld study of the community in some of the
remotest loca on of Jharkhand, and tries to analyse and suggest ways to draw semblance between the
energy needs of the poorest while a aining SDG-7 which promises universal access to aﬀordable, reliable
and modern energy services by 2030.
This second edition captures LEADS intervention, which has resulted into training of youth and
entrepreneurship among them which would be of utmost urgency for maintenance of the entire infrastructure
being installed in villages. LEADS suggestion on training of farmers of solar water pumps; overhead water
tanks etc. which would result into sustainable use of water resources. Likewise linkage with private
enterprises and ﬁnancial institutions is also assisting the beneﬁciaries to adopt reliable and sustainable Clean
Fragmented attempts of various CSOs, government departments, and public needs to be synergised which
would ultimately lead to realisation of not just INDCs but also ensuring aﬀordable, reliable, sustainable and
modern energy for the remotest of popula on.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Background and Approach for the Study
Background and context
Purpose of the study
Descrip on of study area
Approach and methodology
Structure of the report
The development context in Jharkhand
Geographical and physiological features
Electricity supply in Jharkhand
Issues rela ng to electricity demand
Low level of per capita electricity consump on
Relevance of CES
RE Poten al in Jharkhand
Emerging issues of Jharkhand
Policies Related to Clean and Renewable Energy
Interna onal Policies
i. SDG-7 Ensure Access to Aﬀordable, Reliable, Sustainable & Modern Energy
ii. Interna onal Solar Alliance
Na onal Policies
i. Na onal Energy Policy
ii. Na onal Wind-Solar Hybrid Policy
iii. Na onal Policy for Renewable Energy Based Micro and Mini Grids
iv. Na onal Tariﬀ Policy
v. Na onal Policy on BioFuels
vi. Central Financial Assistance and Fiscal Incen ves
vii. Na onal Biomass Cook Stove Program
viii. UJALA Yojna
ix. UJWALA Yojna
i. Jharkhand Solar Policy 2015
ii. Wind Power in Jharkhand
iii. Waste to Energy
iv. Poten al of Geothermal Energy
v. Developmental Projects under JEREDA
Interface with diﬀerent stakeholders: A prac cal reﬂec on
Process of interface
Findings and Data Analysis
Glimpses of Case Studies and Adoptable Models
Solar Village - U ar Pradesh
Solar Cooking System - Andhra Pradesh
Solar Kitchen - Madhya Pradesh
Roof-Top SPV - Hyderabad; Kolkata
Bagasse based Cogenera on
Barefooot College and Solar Mamas
Sugges ons and Recommenda ons
Renewable energy for clean energy accessing Jharkhand: speciﬁca on points
Recycling of Solar Panels
Systema c sugges on for 100% coverage
Conclusion and Way Forward
Focus Group Discussion
Alterna ng Current
Build Own Lease Transfer
Build Own Operate
Build Own Operate and Transfer
Clean Energy Solu ons
Central Financial Assistance
Concentra ng Solar Power
Distribu on Companies
Damodar Valley Corpora on
Energy Service Company
Foreign Direct Investment
Government of India
Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited
Interna onal Solar Alliance
Jawaharlal Nehru Na onal Solar Mission
Jharkhand Renewable Energy Development Agency
Jharkhand State Electricity Board
Jharkhand UrjaSancharan Nigam Limited
Jharkhand BijliVitaran Nigam Limited
Jharkhand UrjaUtpadan Nigam Limited
Jharkhand Urja Vikas Nigam Limited
Kilo Wa Hour
Na onal Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development
Na onal Biomass Cook stoves Ini a ves
Na onal Biomass Cook Stoves Program
Na onal Housing Bank
Net State Domes c Product
Public Distribu on Network
Power Purchase Agreement
Rural Electriﬁca on Companies
Renewable Energy Service Company
Rural Energy Service Providers
Recruitment Process Outsourcing
Regional Rural Banks
Solar Air Hea ng
Situa onal Analysis Report
Sustainable Development Goals
Solar Energy corpora on of India Limited
State Nodal Agencies
Special Project on Cook stove
Solar Water Heater
Unnat Jyo by Aﬀordable LEDs for All
Value Added Tax
Grid Connected Roo op Solar Power Plant
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 :
Table 3.2 :
Table 3.3 :
Table 3.4 :
Table 3.5 :
Table 4.1 :
Table 4.2 :
Table 4.3 :
District wise Installed SPV Plant in Govt. Building ll October, 2019
Installed solar roo op capacity
Placement of Jharkhand ci es on Swachh Survekhshan
Development in projects running under JREDA
Solar PV Powered Cold Storage System
Baseline study Loca on and Organiza on
Village Distribu on in Districts
Panchayat and Village distribu on
LIST OF FIGURES
Energy prospects in India
Geographical Loca on of Jharkhand
Thermal Power Plants List in Jharkhand
Renewable Energy Poten al in Jharkhand
SDG and India
Renewable energy market size, sector composi on and key trends
Spread of Solar Street Lights in Jharkhand
Average hours of Electricity Availability
Sources used for Ligh ng
Fuels used for Cooking
Drinking Water Usage Pa ern
Water Usage for Other Domes c Purpose
Sources of Irriga on
Clean Energy Appliances Usage
Background and Approach for the Study
Background and Context
Energy is central to nearly every major challenge and opportunity the world faces today – security,
climate change, food produc on, jobs or increasing incomes. Sustainable energy generates
opportunity – it transforms lives, economies and the planet. With a popula on of 1.4 billion and
one of the world's fastest-growing major economies, India will be vital for the future of the global
energy markets. The Government of India has made impressive progress in recent years in
increasing ci zens' access to electricity and clean cooking. It has also successfully implemented a
range of energy market reforms and carried out a huge amount of renewable electricity
deployment, notably in solar energy.
The country's installed electricity capacity increased at a cumula ve annual growth rate (CAGR) of
9.3 per cent while genera on grew at 6.6 per cent. The renewable energy (RE) sector exhibited
even faster growth in the past decade, at a CAGR of 20 per cent. Jharkhand, a state with 76.9% of
rural popula on and growing at a rate of NSDP of 11.16% has seen con nuous increase in its
energy demands corresponding its growth. The energy demands are largely met through
tradi onal sources like wood, biomass, kerosene, diesel, and to some extent through commercial
electricity whose supply is erra c. Tradi onal sources have greater environmental footprint,
pollu ng, are hazardous to human health, laboring, economically draining and dehumanizing and
ul mately are a retrain on rapid and sustainable development. Clean energy solu ons to rising
energy needs is therefore an impera ve. Clean Energy³ solu ons will act as catalyst for socioeconomic-sustainable development of rural masses as a whole.
Purpose of the Study
In order to develop a suitable roadmap to achieve the desired target, it is impera ve to analyze and
evaluate the current RE scenario against its policy & regulatory measures undertaken and
technical challenges at the state level and assess its impact. The outcome of the assessment will
enable the decision makers to suitably respond to mi ga on ac ons in order to abate the further
challenges/roadblocks envisaged. Study of Jharkhand and its neighboring and other states policies
has been done for ﬁnding ways to enrich from the learning; Field reality is analyzed for dra ing
be er recommenda ons for the state.
²At current prices for period 2012-18. h p://sta s cs mes.com/economy/gdp-growth-of-indian-states.php
SAR will come out as an advocacy document which will then be used at diﬀerent level of ac on
advocacy for assessing the exis ng space for rights of children of indigenous community.
Descrip on of Study Area
Online Study of the documents of Jharkhand and other states was done in order to understand the
implementa on state and gaps in various schemes and programs on clean energy.
Speciﬁc study of Jharkhand in rela on to overall Renewable Energy policies adopted by state was
done in view of ﬁnding the status, awareness and perspec ve among the communi es regarding
the policies and en tlement.
Field research was done primarily in the rural areas of four tribal dominant districts of
Jharkhand(Ranchi, Khun , Simdega, Gumla) in view of assessment of convenience, availability,
u liza on & sustained usage of the RE sources.
Approach and Methodology
v Sta ng the problem statement and iden fying the objec ve of the study
v Review policies, regulatory and technical documenta ons and the exis ng market
mechanisms that drive that Renewable market
v Online Study of the documents of Jharkhand and other states
v Study of Jharkhand in rela on to Renewable Energy
v Field research in view of u liza on and convenience
v Review the state's RE poten al and conduct a situa onal analysis of the state's driven
ini a ves in response to Na onal RE plan
v Sta ng the Outcome of Analysis by iden fying the deﬁcits
v Suggest the Way Forward post garnering the feedbacks from the current situa on of the
Structure of the Report
v The upcoming chapters discuss about background informa on in context of Jharkhand
including geographical, physiological and socio-economic features. Also it focuses on
electricity supply, issues rela ng to electricity demand and low level of per capita
electricity consump on in Jharkhand & relevance of CES and emerging issues of
v Chapter 3 discusses about renewable energy policy implementa on and gaps in
v Chapter 4 discusses about the results and reﬂec ons from the baseline study conducted in
the sample villages of 4 districts in Jharkhand.
v Chapter 5 deals with na onal policies on CES and a snapshot of status and adaptable
models from other neighboring states of Jharkhand. The Chapter also talks about the
renewable energy poten al of Jharkhand.
v The ﬁnal chapter gives recommenda ons for some systema c sugges ons for Renewable
energy for clean energy access in Jharkhand
NCSEA deﬁnes clean energy as derived from renewable, zero-emission sources ("renewable"), as well as energy saved through energy eﬃciency measures.
The Development Context in Jharkhand
Geographical and Physiological Features
Jharkhand is surrounded by Bihar to the north, U ar Pradesh to the northwest, Chha sgarh to the
west, Odisha to the south, and West Bengal to the east. The state covers a geographical area of
79.70 lakh hectare. Jharkhand is
located in eastern India with its
capital at Ranchi. The state is
divided into 5 divisions, 24
districts, 38 subdivisions and 260
blocks for administra ve
It is the 15th largest state by
area, and the 14th largest by
popula on. The state is known
for its waterfalls, hills and holy
Jharkhand is a word developed
Figure 1. Geographical Loca on of Jharkhand
from the original tribal language
meaning “the land of the jungles." Jharkhand is considered as one of the poten ally richest states
in the world because of its awesome mineral reserves. Jharkhand with a total area of 79716 sq km
has a popula on of 3.29 crore (2011 census). The popula on consists of 28% tribal, 12% Scheduled
Castes and 60% others.
Jharkhand witnesses high incidence of poverty and inequality .The state suﬀers from what is
some mes termed a resource curse, it accounts for more than 40% of the mineral resources of
India, but 39.1% of its popula on is below the poverty line and 19.6% of children under ﬁve years
of age are malnourished. Jharkhand is a source of coal but produc on of electricity is not good.
People refer to it as rich land of poor people.
The other Industries are co age industry and IT industry. Jharkhand approximately has 14%
irrigated land and 86% unirrigated land. Farmers lack strategic irriga on facility. The farmers
largely depend on monsoon and any devia on in monsoon directly aﬀects the agricultural output.
Given this scenario, farmers need proper irriga on system.
The state is primarily rural, with only 24% of the popula on living in ci es. Jharkhand is among the
leading states in economic growth. In 2017-18, the GSDP growth rate of state was at 10.22%.
Electricity Supply in Jharkhand
Jharkhand is being served by mul ple distribu on licensees - JBVNL, DVC, Tata Steel, JUSCO and
SAIL Bokaro. Two licensees, DVC and JUSCO, have overlapping geographical boundaries with the
state distribu on u lity.
Jharkhand had a total installed power genera on capacity of 1762.06 MW, comprising 554.05 MW
under state u li es, 753.27 MW under private sector and 454.74 MW under central u li es.
Backed by large coal reserves in the state, of the total
installed power genera on capacity in the state, 1,543.74
MW of capacity was contributed by coal-based thermal
Addi onally, the state has total 191 MW of installed
hydropower genera on capacity and 24.42 MW from
renewable sources. Per capita electricity consump on in
the state was recorded to be 552 kWh, as compared to the
country's average of 1,010 kWh, during 2015-16.
Figure2.2 Thermal Power Plants List in JharkhandAs of
November 2017, 2,349 villages had been electriﬁed in the
state which is 93% of the target. The remaining 176 villages
are expected to be electriﬁed under various state and
central government schemes. Also, 54,89,706 households
have been electriﬁed in the state.
Issues Related to Electricity Demand
Tata Power Co
Usha Mar n
Ta silwai, Ranchi
Usha Mar n
Despite its mineral wealth, Jharkhand is one of 'Indias
poorest states. The 40 million Indians living in Jharkhand Integrated Power
have few economic opportuni es besides agriculture and
mining. One important reason for the state's economic
Figure 2.2 Thermal Power Plants List in Jharkhand
stagna on is the lack of reliable electricity supply. Without
adequate power, industrial growth is very diﬃcult. The
state's power sector woes do not stem from a lack of fuel. Jharkhand is home to large coal ﬁelds
and supplies fuel to coal-ﬁred power plants across the country. Instead, the problem lies with lack
of adequate governance. Some of them can be listed as under
The state's electricity tariﬀs are among the lowest in India. Because of the low tariﬀs,
distribu on companies cannot cover their costs.
Jharkhand's distribu on companies have failed to curb power the and improve billing and
collec on eﬃciency.
Distribu on companies fail to send electricity bills to households on me, let alone actually
collect the money.
Jharkhand has had a history of low tariﬀs, high technical and commercial losses, and high
external dependency due to a lack of in-state genera on. Almost seventy percent of JBVNL's
power purchase costs come from Central generators, or en es like the Damodar Valley
Corpora on (DVC).
The crisis in the state's electricity bureaucracy is just as worrying. Despite the many
promises made to the Central government associated with UDAY, accusa ons of meter
tampering, gra , and preferen al treatment in the gran ng of industrial power connec ons
are rife among the state's power bureaucracy. Not long ago, an open and shut case of
industrial power the was dismissed in the Ranchi High Court because JBVNL engineers
failed to collect suﬃcient evidence. Under Prime Minister Modi's Saubhagya scheme and
installed a meter to every household, but nobody bothered to actually connect and ac vate
Low Level of Per Capita Electricity Consump on
Per capita electricity consump on in the state was recorded to be 552 kWh, as compared to the
country's average of 1,010 kWh, during 2015-16. As of November 2017, 2,349 villages had been
electriﬁed in the state which is 93% of the target.
Relevance of Clean Energy Solu ons
Similar to the other Indian states, in Jharkhand too maximum power genera on is based on the
conven onal energy sources such as coal and mineral oil-based power plants. They are highly
pollu ng. Though nuclear energy is a good alterna ve solu on to reduce fossil fuel consump on,
it is equally hazardous to human life. Hence, the energy world should think of judicious u liza on
of renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, ocean energy, biomass, and geothermal
energy. The Research and Development ac vi es carried out in the past three decades have
shown good progress in ﬁnding feasible solu on to the problem of ﬁnding new renewable energy
The GoI has set a target of installing 175 GW of grid connected renewable power capacity from
various renewable energy sources by the year 2022. This includes 100 GW from solar, 60 GW from
wind, 10 GW from bio-power and 5 GW from small hydro power.
According to various studies carried out, an es mated Renewable Energy poten al of 1097 GW
has been es mated in the country which includes 749 GW from solar, 302 GW from wind, 25 GW
from bio energy and 21 GW from small hydro power. Clean energy is not just environmentally
sustainable and healthier solu on but also enterprising.
RE poten al in Jharkhand
Es mated Total
Fig 2.3 Renewable Energy Poten al in Jharkhand
Emerging issues of Jharkhand
Economic growth of any region depends only on the long term availability of energy from sources
that are aﬀordable, accessible and sustainable.
Trust is the basis of all achievements and hence vision and mission plan has to be revised and
should be insisted with 4E's concept such as “Educa on, Engineering, Enforcement and
Evalua on”. By allo ng suﬃcient funds to promote the RE projects in me for our future demand
to cater our energy needs. Many Indian states have witnessed the uneven development in
renewable energy sectors; especially, for example, Tamil Nadu has developed more than 70% of its
rich wind poten al when compared with other states. Jharkhand, being a state in energy transi on
can suﬃciently u lize solar and other cleaner source of energy for greater sustainability and
⁴Source 2018 Issue: CENTRAL STATISTICS OFFICE MINISTRY OF STATISTICS AND PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATION GOI
POLICIES RELATED TO CLEAN AND RENEWABLE ENERGY
Need for a clean source of energy has become eminent in the era witnessing Global Warming.
Global eﬀorts since Rio de Janeiro's Earth Summit, 1992 has stressed on the need to turn to
greener sources of fuel to reduce carbon emission. In 2000, UN came up with Millennium
Development Goals which changed into Sustainable development Goals in 2015 which tried to
balance the developmental needs as well as sustainability of the planet earth. It transpired into 17
SDG and se ng up global frameworks within which countries set up their own framework to
achieve the common target for a be er future of the planet earth. Some of the a empts
undertaken globally can be listed as under -
SDG 7- Ensure access to Aﬀordable, reliable, sustainable and Modern Energy to All
There is no development without fuelling the engine of growth. Energy is cri cal and people with
no sustainable access to energy are deprived of the opportunity to become part of na onal and
global progress. And yet, one billion people around the world live without access to energy. More
than 781 million people in 2016, or 39% of the world's popula on, do not have access to clean fuels
and technologies for cooking.
Why is this important?
The Secretary-General of the United Na ons, Ban Ki-moon, has said, “Energy is the golden thread
that connects economic growth,
social equity, and environmental
sustainability. With access to energy,
people can study, go to university,
get a job, start a business – and reach
their full poten al.” Energy is central
to nearly every major challenge and
opportunity the world faces today –
security, climate change, food
produc on, jobs or increasing
i n co m e s . S u sta i n a b l e e n e rg y
generates opportunity – it
transforms lives, economies and the
planet. There are tangible health
beneﬁts to having access to electricity, and a demonstrable improvement in wellbeing. Energy
access therefore cons tutes a core component of the sustainable development agenda for energy.
The produc on of useable energy can also be a source for climate change – accoun ng for around
60% of total global greenhouse gas emissions.
How can we address this?
Goal 7 of the SDGs aims to correct this enormous imbalance by ensuring everyone has access to
aﬀordable, reliable, and modern energy services by the year 2030. To expand energy access, it is
crucial to enhance energy eﬃciency and to invest in renewable energy. Asia has been the driver of
progress in this area, expanding access at the twice the rate of demographic growth. 72% of the
increase in energy consump on from modern renewable sources between 2010 and 2012 came
from developing regions, including parts of Asia. Energy from renewable resources – wind, water,
solar, biomass and geothermal energy – is inexhaus ble and clean. Although the solu on to
energy's climate crisis lies oﬀ-grid, renewable energy currently cons tutes only 15% of the global
energy mix. It is me for a new global partnership on sustainable energy for all, guided by
Sustainable Development Goal 7 on universally accessible, eﬃcient, clean, and reliable energy
sources and services.
Targets for Goal 7
Figure 3.1 SDG and India
India and Goal 7
India is projected to be a signiﬁcant contributor to the rise in global energy demand, around onequarter of the total. However, as of 2016, more than 207 million people in India do not have access
to electricity. The government's Na onal Solar Mission is playing an important role in the work
towards renewable energy, and interven ons in rural electriﬁca on and new ultra-mega power
projects are moving India towards achieving universal energy access.
By 2030, ensure universal access to aﬀordable, reliable and modern energy services.
By 2030, increase substan ally the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix.
⁵ The area of Earth located in between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn is called the tropical (torrid) zone
By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy eﬃciency.
By 2030, enhance interna onal co-opera on to facilitate access to clean energy
research and technology, including renewable energy, energy eﬃciency and advanced
and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure
and clean energy technology.
By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and
sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in par cular least
developed countries, small island developing states and land-locked developing
countries, in accordance with their respec ve programs of support.
Interna onal Solar Alliance
The Interna onal Solar Alliance (ISA) is an alliance of 121 countries ini ated by India, most of them
being sunshine countries, which lie either completely or partly between the Tropic of Cancer and
the Tropic of Capricorn. The primary objec ve of the alliance is to work for eﬃcient exploita on of
solar energy to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. This ini a ve was ﬁrst proposed by Indian
Prime Minister Narendra Modi in a speech in November 2015 at Wembley Stadium, in which he
referred to sunshine countries as Suryaputra ("Sons of the Sun"). The alliance is a treaty-based
inter-governmental organiza on. Countries that do not fall within the Tropics can join the alliance
and enjoy all beneﬁts as other members, with the excep on of vo ng rights. A er the United
Na ons, it will be the largest grouping of states world-wide.
The ini a ve was launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi at the India Africa Summit, and a
mee ng of member countries ahead of the 2015 United Na ons Climate Change Conference in
Paris in November 2015. The framework agreement of the Interna onal Solar Alliance opened for
signatures in Marrakech, Morocco in November 2016, and 200 countries have joined.
The area of Earth located in between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn is called the
tropical (torrid) zone. The points on the Tropic of Cancer are the northernmost points up to which
the Sun can pass directly overhead. Similarly, the southernmost points are on the Tropic of
Capricorn which follows the same criteria. Loca on at the north of the Tropic of Cancer shows the
Sun appearing at the south of the zenith. The sunniest countries of the world are on the African
con nent, ranging from Somalia- Horn of Africa-, east to Niger, west and north to Egypt.
For India, possible addi onal beneﬁts from the alliance can be a strengthening of es with the
major African countries and increasing goodwill for India among them.
1. Members take coordinated ac ons through Programs and ac vi es launched on a
voluntary basis, aimed at be er harmonizing and aggrega ng demand for, inter alia, solar
ﬁnance, solar technologies, innova on, research and development, and capacity building.
2. In this endeavor, Members cooperate closely and strive for establishing mutually beneﬁcial
rela onships with relevant organiza ons, public and private stakeholders, and with nonmember countries.
3. Each Member shares and updates, for those solar applica ons for which it seeks the
beneﬁts of collec ve ac on under the ISA, and based on a common analy cal mapping of
solar applica ons, relevant informa on regarding: its needs and objec ves; domes c
measures and ini a ves taken or intended to be taken in order to achieve these objec ves;
obstacles along the value chain and dissemina on process. The Secretariat maintains a
database of these assessments in order to highlight the poten al for coopera on.
4. Each Member designates a Na onal Focal Point for the ISA. Na onal Focal Points
cons tute a permanent network of correspondents of the ISA in Member countries. They
inter alia interact with one another and also with relevant stakeholders to iden fy areas of
common interest, design Program proposals and make recommenda ons to the
Secretariat regarding the implementa on of the objec ves of the ISA.
Programs and Other Ac vi es
1. A Program of the ISA consists of a set of ac ons, projects and ac vi es to be taken in a
coordinated manner by Members, with the assistance of the Secretariat, in furtherance of
the objec ve and guiding principles described in ar cle I and II. Programs are designed in a
way to ensure maximum scale eﬀect and par cipa on of the largest possible number of
Members. They include simple, measurable, mobilizing targets.
2. Program proposals are designed through open consulta ons among all Na onal Focal
Points, with the assistance of the Secretariat, and based on informa on shared by
Members. A Program can be proposed by any two Members or group of Members, or by
the Secretariat. The Secretariat ensures coherence among all ISA Programs.
3. Program proposals are circulated by the Secretariat to the Assembly by digital circula on,
through the network of Na onal Focal Points. A Program proposal is deemed open to
adhesion by Members willing to join if it is supported by at least two Members and if
objec ons are not raised by more than two countries.
4. A Program proposal is formally endorsed by Members willing to join, through a joint
declara on. All decisions regarding the implementa on of the Program are taken by
Members par cipa ng in the Program. They are carried out, with the guidance and
assistance of the Secretariat, by country Representa ves designated by each Member.
5. The annual work plan gives an overview of the Program, and other ac vi es of the ISA. It is
presented by the Secretariat to the Assembly, which ensures that all Program and ac vi es
of the annual work plan are within the overall objec ve of the ISA.
NATIONAL POLICIES – CLEAN ENERGY
The Government of India is playing an ac ve role in promo ng the adop on of RE by encouraging
private sector investment and manda ng the use of renewable resources. It is oﬀering various
incen ves, such as GBIs and tax holidays, to encourage the development and use of RE sources.
GoI has also created a liberal environment for foreign investment in RE projects. In addi on to
allowing 100% foreign direct investment (FDI), the government is encouraging foreign investors to
set up RE-based power genera on projects on a build-own-operate (BOO) basis in the country.
RE equipment prices have fallen drama cally due to technological innova on, increasing
manufacturing scale and experience curve gains making RE cost compe ve with fossil fuels. This
is par cularly true of solar and wind technology, where solar module prices have declined by
almost 80% since 2008. Wind turbine prices have declined by nearly 30% during the same period
. Falling equipment prices have led to large-scale deployment of the technologies in India and
Figure 3.2 Renewable energy market size, sector composi on and key trends
Na onal Energy Policy
The Na onal Energy Policy (NEP) aims to chart the way forward to meet the Government bold
ambi ons for India's energy sector developments. This includes providing access to electricity to
all the Census villages by 2018, and for universal electriﬁca on to be achieved, with 24x7
electricity by 2022. India's NDCs target reduc on of emissions intensity of 33%-35% by 2030 over
2005, through increasing renewable energy capacity to 175 GW by 2022, and increase the share of
non-fossil fuel based capacity in the electricity mix to above 40% by 2030. Recognizing that the
responsibility for energy policy is spread across diﬀerent Ministries that hold the primary
responsibility of se ng their own sectoral agenda, an overarching policy framework is required to
achieve the goal of energy security and facilitate coordina on between these sources. This is also
expected to mainstream emerging energy technologies, and provide consumer energy choices.
The NEP builds on the achievements of the earlier overarching policy framework -the Integrated
Energy Policy (IEP), and sets the new agenda consistent with the redeﬁned role of emerging
developments in the energy world.
There are four key objec ves to India's broad arching energy policy under the IEP:
Access at aﬀordable prices;
Improved security and Independence;
Greater Sustainability; and
To achieve these four objec ves, seven areas of interven on were iden ﬁed, which are:
I. Energy Consump on by businesses, households, transporta on and agriculture
II. Energy Eﬃciency/de-carboniza on measures on the demand side
III. Produc on and distribu on of coal
IV. Electricity genera on, transmission and distribu on
V. Augmen ng supply of oil and gas, both by domes c E&P, and through acquisi on of
VI. Reﬁning and distribu on of oil and gas.
VII. Installa on, genera on and distribu on of renewable energy
Na onal Wind-Solar Hybrid Policy
Solar and wind power being variable in nature pose certain challenges on grid security and
stability. Studies revealed that in India solar and wind resources are complementary to each other
and hybridiza on of these two technologies would help in minimizing the variability apart from
op mally u lizing the infrastructure including land and transmission system.
Superimposi on of wind and solar resource maps shows that there are large areas where both
wind and solar have high to moderate poten al.
The exis ng wind farms have scope of adding solar PV capacity and similarly there may be wind
poten al in the vicinity of exis ng solar PV plant.
Suitable policy interven ons are therefore, required not only for new wind-solar hybrid plants but
also for encouraging hybridiza on of exis ng wind and solar plants.
To smoothen the wind solar hybrid power further, appropriate capacity of ba ery storage may also
be added to the project.
Implementa on Strategy
The implementa on of wind solar hybrid system will depend on diﬀerent conﬁgura ons and use of
i. Wind-Solar Hybrid- AC integra on
ii. Wind-Solar Hybrid- DC integra on
New Wind-Solar Hybrid Plants:
New wind-solar hybrid projects shall be encouraged with following provisions:i. The hybrid power generated from the wind-solar hybrid project may be used for
a. cap ve purpose;
b. sale to third party through open access;
c. sale to the distribu on company (ies) either at tariﬀ determined by the respec ve SERC or
at tariﬀ discovered through transparent bidding process; and
d. sale to the distribu on company (ies) at APPC under REC mechanism and avail RECs.
ii. The power procured from the hybrid project may be used for fulﬁllment of solar RPO and
non-solar RPO in the propor on of rated capacity of solar and wind power in the hybrid plant
iii. For procurement of hybrid power through transparent bidding process diﬀerent parameters
may be used. Parameters that may be considered for bidding could be capacity delivered at
grid interface point, eﬀec ve CUF and unit price of electricity.
Hybridiza on of exis ng wind/solar PV plants:
Exis ng wind or solar power projects, willing to install solar PV plant or WTGs respec vely to avail
beneﬁt of hybrid project, may be allowed to do so with following Condi ons:
i. No addi onal connec vity/transmission capacity charges shall be levied by the respec ve
transmission en ty for hybridiza on at exis ng wind/solar PV plants if already granted
transmission connec vity/ access is being used. Transmission charges may be applicable for
the addi onal transmission capacity/ access granted as per prevailing regula on.
ii. In case capacity margins are available at the receiving transmission sub-sta on of respec ve
transmission en ty, at which the exis ng winds/solar projects are connected, addi onal
transmission capacity/access may be allowed subject to its technical feasibility.
iii. The addi onal solar/wind power generated from the hybrid project may be used for
(a) cap ve purpose;
(b) sale to third party through open access;
(c) sale to the distribu on company (ies) either at tariﬀ determined by the respec ve SERC or
at tariﬀ discovered through transparent bidding process; and
(d) sale to the distribu on company (ies) at APPC under REC mechanism and avail RECs.
iv. Government en es may invite bids for hybridiza on of exis ng wind and solar plants with
tariﬀ being the main criteria for selec on.
v. The addi onal solar/wind power procured from hybrid project shall be used for fulﬁllment of
solar/non-solar RPO as the case may be.
Ba ery Storage:
Ba ery storage may be added to the hybrid project
a. To reduce the variability of output power from wind solar hybrid plant;
b. Providing higher energy output for a given capacity (bid/ sanc oned capacity) at delivery
point, by installing addi onal capacity of wind and solar power in a wind solar hybrid plant;
c. Ensuring availability of ﬁrm power for a par cular period. Bidding factors for wind solar
hybrid plants with ba ery storage may include minimum ﬁrm power output throughout the
day or for deﬁned hours during the day, extent of variability allowed in output power, unit
price of electricity, etc.
Na onal Policy for Renewable Energy based Micro and Mini Grids
To promote the deployment of micro and mini grids powered by RE sources such as solar, biomass,
pico hydro, wind etc. in un-served and underserved parts of the country by encouraging the
development of State-level policies and regula ons, that enable par cipa on of ESCOs.
The underlying principles of the policy
v Mainstream RE mini grids for enhancing access to aﬀordable energy services and
improving local economy
v Streamline project development procedures for ESCOs
v Provide opera onal frameworks to operate along with the Distribu on Company
v Op mize access to central ﬁnancial assistance and other incen ves
v Foster innova on in mini grid models to cater to rural needs
Micro and Mini Grids
A 'Mini Grid' is deﬁned as a system having a RE based electricity generator (with capacity of 10KW
and above), and supplying electricity to a target set of consumers (residents for household usage,
commercial, produc ve, industrial and ins tu onal setups etc.) through a Public Distribu on
A 'Micro Grid' system is similar to a mini grid but having a RE based genera on capacity of below
10KW. Micro and mini grids2 generally operate in isola on to the electricity networks of the
DISCOM grid (standalone), but can also interconnect with the grid to exchange power. If connected
to grid they are termed as grid connected mini/ micro grid.
Types of Tariﬀ and Revenues
The Electricity Act, 2003 (Eighth provision of Sec on 14) exempts ESCOs from the mandatory
licensing requirement for distribu on of electricity in no ﬁed rural
The Ministry is issuing a policy oﬀering likely implementa on solu ons and approaches for
overcoming common issues and challenges that hamper the growth of mini grid sector.
The exis ng policy and legisla ve framework (Sec on 8.6 of Rural Electriﬁca on Policy, 2006) also
s pulates that if Central and or State Financial Assistance (subsidies, incen ves etc.) are availed,
the beneﬁts need to be passed to the consumers.
Costs, Revenues and Pricing Mechanisms:
The cost structure of a mini grid project will have the following elements as in any other business –
Fixed Costs and Variable Costs.
Policy, Regulatory and Implementa on level Interven ons
The Ministry will implement the mini grid program through mul ple partners:
v State Nodal (Renewable Energy Developmental) Agencies (SNA)
v Public Sector Organiza ons (Ex: SECI)
v Rural Energy Service Providers (RESPs),
v Financial Ins tu ons (NABARD/IREDA/ RRB/Commercial banks)
v Panchayats Project Site Iden ﬁca on and Development
Na onal Tariﬀ Policy
The Government had launched the Jawaharlal Nehru Na onal Solar Mission, with the aim to focus
on se ng up an enabling environment for solar technology penetra on in the country both at a
centralized and decentralized level.
The ﬁrst phase (up to March 2013) having achieved the required target and momentum, Solar
Thermal component of JNNSM in balance period (up to March 2022) will now, inter alia, would
require focus on promo ng oﬀ-grid systems including hybrid systems to meet / supplement
hea ng and cooling energy requirements and power.
The key challenge is to provide an enabling framework and support for entrepreneurs to develop
markets. This scheme program will address oﬀ grid and decentralized solar thermal applica on
Name of the scheme
The scheme will be known as 'Capital subsidy scheme for installa on of solar thermal systems'
Solar thermal applica ons/systems areas to be covered in this scheme
The heat produced from solar energy can be used for various applica ons in diﬀerent sectors like
process hea ng, drying, dis lla on/desalina on, water hea ng, space hea ng and refrigera on
and power/electricity genera on.
Following systems may be considered for grant of capital subsidy in this scheme
Solar water hea ng: A solar water heater (SWH) is a combina on of an array of collectors,
an energy transfer system and a thermal storage system.
Solar air hea ng Solar Air Hea ng (SAH) systems use air as the working ﬂuid for absorbing
and transferring solar energy. These systems are used for the produc on of hot air for
drying/space-hea ng applica ons.
Solar steam genera on/ pressurized hot water/air systems
Solar thermal refrigera on/cooling Solar cooling can be considered for two related
processes: to provide refrigera on for food and medicine preserva on, as well as to
provide comfort cooling.
Solar Thermal Power Pack (including hybrid with Solar PV) Concentra ng Solar Power (CSP)
Solar s lls
v To promote oﬀ-grid applica ons of solar Thermal systems( solar water/air hea ng system,
solar cooker, solar concentra ng system, solar thermal power pack are covered for mee ng
the targets set in the Jawaharlal Nehru Na onal Solar Mission .
v To create awareness and demonstrate eﬀec ve and innova ve use of solar thermal systems
for individual/ community/ ins tu onal/ industrial applica ons
v To encourage innova on in addressing market needs and promo ng sustainable business
v To provide support to channel partners and poten al beneﬁciaries, within the framework of
boundary condi ons and in a ﬂexible demand driven mode.
v To create a paradigm shi needed for commodi za on of oﬀ-grid decentralized solar
thermal applica ons
v To support consultancy services, seminars, symposia, capacity building, awareness
campaigns, human resource development, etc.
Mode of Implementa on
The program would be implemented through mul ple agencies - State Nodal Agencies/Depts.
implemen ng the renewable energy program, Solar Energy Corpora on of India, Channel Partners
and other Govt. organiza ons i.e., PSUs/Ins tu ons/State Departments/Local
Governments/Municipal Corpora ons/NHB/NABARD/IREDA etc.
Na onal Policy on Biofuels
In order to promote biofuels in the country, a Na onal Policy on Biofuels was made by Ministry of
New and Renewable Energy during the year 2009. Globally, biofuels have caught the a en on in
last decade and it is impera ve to keep up with the pace of developments in the ﬁeld of biofuels.
Biofuels in India are of strategic importance as it augers well with the ongoing ini a ves of the
Government such as Make in India, Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, Skill Development and oﬀers great
opportunity to integrate with the ambi ous targets of doubling of Farmers Income, Import
Reduc on, Employment Genera on, Waste to Wealth Crea on. Biofuels program in India has
been largely impacted due to the sustained and quantum non-availability of domes c feedstock
for biofuel produc on which needs to be addressed.
i. The Policy categorizes biofuels as "Basic Biofuels" viz. First Genera on (1G) bioethanol &
biodiesel and "Advanced Biofuels" - Second Genera on (2G) ethanol, Municipal Solid Waste
(MSW) to drop-in fuels, Third Genera on (3G) biofuels, bio-CNG etc. to enable extension of
appropriate ﬁnancial and ﬁscal incen ves under each category.
ii. The Policy expands the scope of raw material for ethanol produc on by allowing use of
Sugarcane Juice, Sugar containing materials like Sugar Beet, Sweet Sorghum, Starch
containing materials like Corn, Cassava, Damaged food grains like wheat, broken rice, Ro en
Potatoes, unﬁt for human consump on for ethanol produc on.
iii. Farmers are at a risk of not ge ng appropriate price for their produce during the surplus
produc on phase. Taking this into account, the Policy allows use of surplus food grains for
produc on of ethanol for blending with petrol with the approval of Na onal Biofuel
Coordina on Commi ee.
iv. With a thrust on Advanced Biofuels, the Policy indicates a viability gap funding scheme for
2G ethanol Bio reﬁneries of Rs.5000 crore in 6 years in addi on to addi onal tax incen ves,
higher purchase price as compared to 1G biofuels.
v. The Policy encourages se ng up of supply chain mechanisms for biodiesel produc on from
non-edible oilseeds, Used Cooking Oil, short gesta on crops.
vi. Roles and responsibili es of all the concerned Ministries/Departments with respect to
biofuels have been captured in the Policy document to synergize eﬀorts.
v Reduce Import Dependency: One crore lit of E10 saves Rs.28 crore of forex at current rates.
The ethanol supply year 2017-18 is likely to see a supply of around 150 crore liters of ethanol
which will result in savings of over Rs.4000 crore of forex.
v Cleaner Environment: One crore lit of E-10 saves around 20,000 ton of CO2 emissions. For
the ethanol supply year 2017-18, there will be lesser emissions of CO2 to the tune of 30 lakh
ton. By reducing crop burning & conversion of agricultural residues/wastes to biofuels there
will be further reduc on in Green House Gas emissions.
v Health beneﬁts: Prolonged reuse of Cooking Oil for preparing food, par cularly in deepfrying is a poten al health hazard and can lead to many diseases. Used Cooking Oil is a
poten al feedstock for biodiesel and its use for making biodiesel will prevent diversion of
used cooking oil in the food industry.
v MSW Management: It is es mated that, annually 62 MMT of Municipal Solid Waste gets
generated in India. There are technologies available which can convert waste/plas c, MSW
to drop in fuels. One ton of such waste has the poten al to provide around 20% of drop in
v Infrastructural Investment in Rural Areas: It is es mated that, one 100klpd bio reﬁnery will
require around Rs.800 crore capital investment. At present Oil Marke ng Companies are in
the process of se ng up twelve 2G bio reﬁneries with an investment of around Rs.10,000
crore. Further addi on of 2G bio reﬁneries across the Country will spur infrastructural
investment in the rural areas.
v Employment Genera on: One 100klpd 2G bio reﬁnery can contribute 1200 jobs in Plant
Opera ons, Village Level Entrepreneurs and Supply Chain Management.
v Addi onal Income to Farmers: By adop ng 2G technologies, agricultural residues/waste
which otherwise are burnt by the farmers can be converted to ethanol and can fetch a price
for these waste if a market is developed for the same. Also, farmers are at a risk of not ge ng
appropriate price for their produce during the surplus produc on phase. Thus conversion of
surplus grains and agricultural biomass can help in price stabiliza on.
Central Financial Assistance and Fiscal Incen ves
CFA for Biomass Power Project and Bagasse Cogenera on Projects by Private/Joint/Coop./Public
Sector Sugar Mills
Biomass Power projects
Rs.20 lakh X (C MW)^0.646
Bagasse Co-genera on by Private sugar mills
Rs.15 lakh X (C MW)^0.646
Bagasse Co-genera on projects by coopera ve/ public
sector sugar mills 40 bar & above
60 bar & above
80 bar & above
Per MW of surplus power@
(maximum support Rs. 8.0 crore per project)
CFA for Bagasse Cogenera on Project in coopera ve/ public sector sugar mills implemented by
IPPs/State Government Undertakings or State Government Joint Venture Company / Special
Purpose Vehicle (UrjaAnkur Trust) through BOOT/BOLT model
Single coop. mill through BOOT/BOLT Model
Minimum Conﬁgura on
60 bar & above 80 bar & above
Rs.40 L/MW of surplus power *Rs.50 L/MW of
surplus power*(maximum support Rs.8.0 crore/
CFA for Bagasse Cogenera on Project in exis ng coopera ve sector sugar mills employing boiler
Exis ng Coopera ve Sugar
Minimum Conﬁgura on
40 bar & above 60 bar &
above 80 bar & above
Rs.20 L/MW of surplus power * Rs.25 L/MW of surplus
power* Rs.30 L/MW of surplus power*
(* Power generated in a sugar mill ( -) power used for cap ve
purpose i.e. Net power fed to the grid during season by a sugar mill.
CFA will be provided to the sugar mills who have not received CFA
earlier from MNRE under any of its scheme.)
Na onal Biomass Cook Stoves Program (NBCP)
In the context of concerns over health, climate change and energy security, the Ministry of New
and Renewable Energy through a Special Project on Cook stove(SPC) during 2009-10 ini ated the
process of consulta ons under its Core Group on cook stoves to ascertain the status of various
types of biomass improved cook stoves being developed and promoted by various organiza ons,
NGOs, entrepreneurs and industries in the country, and to iden fy ways and means for the
development and expansion of the deployment of improved biomass cook stoves. The
consulta ons indicated that biomass cook stoves do have the poten al to directly address health
and welfare concerns of the weakest and most vulnerable sec ons of society. The cleaner
combus on in these devices will also greatly reduce greenhouse pollutants.
Na onal Biomass Cook stoves Ini a ves (NBCI)
As a result of the above consulta ons, a Na onal Biomass Cook stoves Ini a ve (NBCI) was
launched by MNRE on 2 December 2009 at New Delhi with the primary aim to enhance the use of
improved biomass cook stoves.
Unnat Chulha Abhiyan Program
As follow up to the Na onal Biomass Cook-stove Ini a ve (NBCI), the Ministry ini ated a new
proposal for promo ng the development and deployment of Unnat Chulhas (Biomass Cook
stoves) in the country during the 12th Plan Period for a budgetary cost of Rs. 294/- crores appraised
and recommended by the Expenditure Finance Commi ee.
Accordingly the Administra ve Approval with detailed Guidelines for the Unnat Chulha Abhiyan
were formulated and issued on 27 June 2014.
To develop and deploy improved biomass cook-stoves for providing cleaner cooking Energy
solu ons in rural, semi-urban and urban areas using biomass as fuel for cooking.
i. To mi gate drudgery of women and children using tradi onal chulha for cooking.
ii. To mi gate climate change by reducing the black carbon and other emissions resul ng from
burning biomass for cooking.
A target of 2.75 million improved cook stoves/ chulha swaswaswas disseminated/installed in the
remaining period of the 12th Plan Period .
Key Features of UJALA
v Unnat Jyo by Aﬀordable LEDs for All (UJALA) scheme was launched on May 1, 2015 to
promote eﬃcient use of energy at residen al level and enhance consumer awareness on
using eﬃcient equipment to reduce electricity bills and help preserve the environment.
v The scheme promotes the use of LED bulbs as a subs tute to incandescent bulbs, tube lights
and CFL bulbs.
v LED bulbs under UJALA are distributed at subsidized rates through special counters only set
up at designated places in diﬀerent ci es across the country.
The Need for UJALA Yojana
As per a study conducted by the Ministry of Environment and Forest in 2011, ligh ng consump on
cons tuted about 30 percent of overall residen al energy consump on. The main ligh ng op ons
in Indian households comprised of Incandescent Light (ICLs) bulbs, Tube-lights (Fluorescent lamps)
The consumers availing bulbs under UJALA can save nearly INR 336 every year on their electricity
bills per LED bulb. 3 UJALA – 'A Way to Light' Under the scheme, the Government's target is to
replace all 77 crore ineﬃcient bulbs in the country with LED bulbs by 2019, which would result in an
annual reduc on of 20,000 MW load and Green House Gas reduc on of 80 million tons every year.
The 3 states yet to adopt the scheme are Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura and Manipur. The details of
UJALA LED bulbs are stated below.
For 2016-17, the Government of India is conﬁdent of distribu ng an addi onal 20 crore LED bulbs.
Sustained eﬀorts under UJALA, coupled with industry support, will help the government achieve
its objec ve of replacing 77 crore ineﬃcient bulbs by March 2019.
Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY)
The Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY) is a government scheme launched in. The scheme
envisages the distribu on of 50 million LPG connec ons to women below the poverty line. It was
launched with a budget alloca on of Rs. 80 billion. A total of 22 million LPG connec ons were
distributed during the ﬁrst year of its launch.
As per the es mates of the World Health Organisa on (WHO), about 5 lakh deaths in India
occurred due to unclean cooking fuel. These deaths were caused mostly due to noncommunicable diseases including heart disease, stroke, chronic obstruc ve pulmonary disease
and lung cancer. Providing LPG connec ons to families below the poverty line will ensure universal
coverage of cooking gas in the country. The scheme can be a tool for women empowerment in that
LPG connec ons and clean cooking fuel can reduce cooking me and eﬀort, and in most of India,
cooking is a responsibility shouldered solely by women. The scheme also provides employment to
the rural youth in the supply chain of cooking gas.
The Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana was launched for providing clean fuel to women below the
poverty line. The use of unclean cooking fuel is harmful to human health. The aims of the Pradhan
Mantri Ujjwala Yojana are:
v To empower women and protect their health.
v To minimise health issues arising from the use of unclean fossil fuel and other fuel while
v To control indoor pollu on from the use of fossil fuel which causes respiratory issues.
v To prevent degrada on of the purity of the environment that is compromised by
widespread usage of unclean cooking fuel.
Any applicant who fulﬁls the below-men oned criteria is eligible to apply for the Pradhan Mantri
The applicant must be a woman aged above 18 years. She must also be a ci zen of India.
She should belong to a family below the poverty line and no one else from the household
should own an LPG connec on.
The overall monthly income of the family should not exceed a certain limit that is
prescribed by the UT/State Governments.
The applicant's name should be in the list of SECC-2011 and should also match with the
informa on provided in the BPL database of the oil marke ng companies.
The applicant should not be registered under any other similar scheme provided by the
Apart from the above, the applicant should also submit a set of documents indica ng her BPL
status, iden ty, etc.
v 5 crore LPG connec ons to families below the poverty line.
v Financial support of Rs 1600 is provided by the scheme for each LPG connec on for BPL
households. The administra ve cost of this support will be borne by the Government. This
subsidy is meant for the security fee for the cylinder, pressure regulator, booklet, safety
hose, and other ﬁ ng charges.
v Under the scheme, oil marke ng companies also provide interest-free loans for reﬁlling and
v The Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana covers all the BPL families that come under all forms of
distributorship, and distributes various sizes of cylinders (14.2 kg, 5 kg, etc.) as per the ﬁeld
v The beneﬁts of this scheme are also available for the people of all Hilly States including the
NE States (who are treated as 'Priority States').
v The scheme will eﬀec vely address several diﬃcul es faced by the people in the States of
Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, U arakhand, Sikkim, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur,
Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya and Tripura in accessing LPG for cooking
The Pradhan Mantri Ujjwana Yojana is implemented by the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural
Gas. This scheme has become successful in establishing around 95.1 lakh LPG connec ons across
11 states in India.
Jharkhand Solar Policy 2015
Policy, which was revised in the year 2017, aims to push Jharkhand's total solar power produc on
capacity to 2,650 MW by the year 2020, including large scale and roo op solar plants.
Jharkhand Solar Energy Policy Updates 2017
A 50 percent subsidy to residen al consumers and a 10 percent subsidy to commercial (industrial)
consumers installing roo op solar will be provided by the Jharkhand State government, the policy was
implemented in July 2017.
v To encourage par cipa on of private sector to set up solar power based projects in the state
& increase solar power genera on to 2650MW by the year 2020in a phased manner.
v To build favorable atmosphere for se ng up solar power projects.
v Ensure energy security of the state by stable and non-pollu on means.
v To promote local manufacturing facili es which will generate employment in the state
The State shall promote development of solar park on non-produc ve Government land or any
other land falling within the area of solar park. State Government will iden fy land for the
development of Solar Parks. The State Electricity Regulatory Commission shall develop suitable
framework to ensure successful development of Solar Parks in the State.
The State Government, under this Policy, will help facilitate in building up the necessary
infrastructure like power evacua on infrastructure, water requirements and internal road etc.
Solar Park will consist of various zones viz. Solar Power Projects, Manufacturing Zones, R&D and
training centers. The state will extend all facili es and ﬁscal incen ves provided by central Govt. /
Na onal Solar Mission to the Manufacturers and Power Project Developers in Solar Park.
Solar Power Plants on Canals
The State is promo ng development of Solar Power Plants on the Canal Top and on the banks of
canal, a er undertaking its technical feasibility. In addi on, the Nodal Agency shall coordinate with
the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy for implementa on of its scheme announced from
me to me.
Roo op Solar Power Plants
Jharkhand government is encouraging implementa on of the minimum target speciﬁed for
roo op solar photovoltaic power plants, connected with electricity system.
Solar Thermal Power Plants
All registered companies/ ﬁrms/socie es, government en es, consumers of Discoms and
individual will be eligible for se ng up of solar power projects within the state for sale of electricity
/ cap ve use, in accordance with the electricity Act 2003 as amended from me to me.
For projects for sale of power to Discoms of Jharkhand, security deposit will be governed by
provisions in the bid document and PPA.
For plants under REC mechanism, cap ve use, third party sale/sale to other state through Open
Access, the developer shall have to deposit security amount of Rs. 30.00 lakh/MW in the form of
bank guarantee within one month from the date of issue of in-principle clearance/approval of the
project by JREDA, failing which the approval of the project shall automa cally stand cancelled.
Security amount deposited shall not be conver ble or transferable and shall be refunded within 30
days a er receipt of wri en request from the developer a er Commissioning of the project.
In case the developer fails to commission the power plant within the me schedule, the security
deposit shall be forfeited.
i. SPP to be treated as industry. Intra-state Open Access for tenure of the project or 25 years
whichever is earlier. Equipment exempted from VAT, Electricity duty, Cross Subsidy
Surcharge. Exempted for Distribu on Losses for projects injec ng at 33 kV or below.
ii. Remote Village Electriﬁca on program: progress by Jharkhand Renewable Energy
Development Agency JREDA program for oﬀ-grid RE devices including cooking energy
Project on Hybrid System (Solar & Wind) in Lapung, Ranchi
JREDA on the vase of conver ng more and more energy from renewable sources is now focusing
on hybrid system for genera on of electricity
IIT Madras has got approval from MNRE of solar energy corpora on of India department to work
and research for the term of 2 years and submi ed the report and found the possibility of
electricity genera on and poten al with the help of JREDA.
Solar Power Plant in Sikidiri, Ranchi
JREDA is going to set up 2MW of electricity genera on on Canal Top Plant at Sikidiri, about 39 KMs
from the state capital. It would be providing electricity to near about 1000 households.
Solar Energy Eﬃcient Buildings in Jharkhand
The new Jharkhand Assembly premise is the
ﬁrst in the country which will be en rely
paperless. For energy eﬃciency, 300 KVA two
solar power systems have been installed
through which power will be supplied to new
building. Sources said that the new Assembly
building will meet 40 per cent of its power
requirement through renewable energy.
Following table enlist the buildings and their
energy capaci es at diﬀerent loca ons in
Capacity Total No of
Capacity No. of Capacity No. of Capacity No. of Capacity No. of
(kWp) Building (kWp) Building (kWp) Building (kWp) Building
Table 3.1 : District wise Installed SPV Plant in Govt. Building ll October, 2019
No of Building Installed Capacity Sanc on Capacity
Total No of Building
Table 3.2: Installed solar roo op capacity
Solar PV Powered Cold Storage System
Solar PV Powered Cold Storage System is a cold storage facility for storage of fresh hor cultural
produce, powered by solar photovoltaic with ba ery backup. The puﬀ insulated walk-in type cold
storage chamber, constructed and ﬁ ed with a vapour compression refrigera on system and a
humidiﬁer. Temperature and rela ve humidity controllers are ﬁ ed in the cold storage chamber to
maintain desired room temperature (5–25°C) and rela ve humidity (65–95 per cent) for storage of
hor cultural produce. For opera on of the cold storage unit, solar photovoltaic (PV) power plant
and minimum ba ery backup are required. The ba ery backup is provided to store solar power
generated during the day and supply power during night and cloudy weather. The lead acid solar
ba eries are used for storage of power oﬀ-sun shine opera on. Energy output from the solar panel
plant is suﬃcient to operate the cold storage unit. The power condi oning unit/inverter of the
solar power plant converts the DC power produced from the solar panel into three phase AC
electricity for opera ng the cold storage unit and other u li es. Such facility has been set up in
Gumla and Koderma districts of Jharkhand and is managed by JREDA.
U liza on
40% u liza on (average)
Almost 100% u lisa on
matching with the crop cycle
50-60% u liza on with the
given crop cycle
Substan al reduc on in
crop wastage has been
The members of the FPC
have been able to achieve
negligible wastage of their
Farmers have been able to
avoid wastage by using
solar cold rooms on rental
Working towards reducing
Facilitated access to
market larger markets
such as Delhi
Facilitated access to markets
where premium on ﬂowers is
high, such as Ahmedabad
The fruit vendor in Pasanga
has created backward
linkages in wholesale
market and forward linkage
in the retail market at the
The FPC has not been
able to access larger
markets as of now
Price realiza on
Realised almost 200%
higher prices as compared
to prices oﬀered in local market
Revenue per s ck of ﬂower
has increased almost by 75%100%
Not determined as facility
is being rented out
Realized almost 100%
be er prices by ming the
Financially viable and the
farmer also has expansion
Financially viable; nearby
farmers are also willing to
invest in the technology
4-6 years, depending on
the subsidy component
About 1 year
Not viable at present
More than 10 years in case
grant is not available
Figure 3.1: Solar PV Powered Cold Storage System
Revenue stream is not
Solar Street Lights
The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) launched the Atal Jyo Yojana (AJAY) to
illuminate dark regions through establishment of solar street lights. It is a sub scheme under oﬀ
–grid and decentralized solar applica on scheme of Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
(MNRE), Govt. of India.
The Phase I was implemented during September 2016- March 2018. The Phase II is being
implemented during 2018-19 and 2019-20. Energy Eﬃciency Services Limited (EESL) has been
entrusted to implement the scheme.
Figure 3.3 Spread of Solar Street Lights in Jharkhand
Wind Power in Jharkhand
In India the Wind farms can be installed at MNES iden ﬁed poten al sites, where it has a mean
annual wind power density of 200 W/m2 or more at 50m above ground level.
A study by Na onal Ins tute of Technology, Patna was conducted to study feasibility of Wind
turbines at selected loca ons in Jharkhand. This study evaluated the availability of wind energy for
electricity produc on at diﬀerent loca ons, i.e., Ranchi, Jamshedpur, Devghar, Lohardaga, and
Chaibasa, in Jharkhand, India. Due to the rapidly rising demand for power in Jharkhand, there is a
requirement of an alterna ve renewable source of energy to lower the dependence on its limited
fossil fuel resources. The studied loca ons were found to be unsuitable for wind to electricity
genera on on a large scale at 10 m height above the ground. However, small-scale wind turbines
can be used to extract energy from low-speed wind, preferably at a height above 10 m from the
Waste to Energy
There is no clear idea on how much we generate as the data on genera on of solid waste is not
based on measurement, but is es mated. The thumb rule is: – Small ci es generate approximately
0.3 kg/capita/day and the big ci es 0.5-0.6 kg/capita/day. But what is clear is that per capita waste
genera on is growing across country. Waste genera on is linked to wealth. As we grow wealthier,
we generate more waste. The richest ci es and states in India generate the most waste. Ranchi is
es mated to generate more than 600 MT of garbage/waste every day. The genera on rate of
everybody is about 350 –400 gm per person/day.
Ramgarh Nagar Parishad
Table 3.3: Placement of Jharkhand ci es on Swachh Survekhshan
The table represents posi on of Jharkhand ci es in Swachh Survekshan which are mostly lowly
ranked. Solid waste management in the villages is even worse with no organized collec on,
processing or disposal. With shrinking places and growing penetra on of industrial products into the
villages, management of waste in villages has become an eminent need.
Es ma on of Green House Beneﬁt
One tones of methane is equivalent to 21 tons of carbon dioxide. The es mated quan ty of
methane is in Cu. Meter. ; 53060092 X 0.5= 26530046 m3 of methane = 26530046 m3 of methane X
0.672; (LFG is assumed to be 50% methane) = 17,828,191 Kg of methane. CO2 Equivalent = 21 X
17828191= 374392011 Kg = 368364 Tons.
The urgency to take a call on the WTE plant comes with Ranchi Municipal Corpora on (RMC)
resulted into termina on of the contract of the Mumbai-based Essel Infra Projects, which had
been assigned to handle door-to-door garbage collec on and set up the WTE plant across 12 acres
at Jhiri, around 15km from Ranchi, at a cost of over Rs 200 crore. The project was ini ated on
October 4, 2016, and was expected to be completed in November 2018. But so far, no construc on
has started and solid waste con nues to be dumped at the Jhiri site. The Indian character of wastes
is completely diﬀerent from that of western countries. In India we have nearly 60 per cent organic
waste which has higher moisture content. Also, there is lack of dry and wet waste segrega on at
source unlike western countries which makes WTE ﬁnancially unviable. It won't be proper to
blindly adopt western solu ons to waste management in India.
GOBAR (Galvanizing Organic Bio-Agro Resources) DHAN, to kick-start the use of biogas and
organic waste for energy genera on purposes in the state. Household and agricultural waste
would be used extensively by the state to produce biogas. Using waste for biogas produc on will
also ensure that villages and ci es in the state remain clean. The Centre provides subsidies of up to
100 per cent for biogas plants manufactured by gram panchayats.
Na onal Biogas and Manure Management Program (NBMMP), is a Central Sector Scheme,
which provides for se ng up of Family Type Biogas Plants mainly for rural and semiurban/households. A family type biogas plant generates biogas from organic substances such as
ca le –dung, and other bio-degradable materials such as biomass from farms, gardens, kitchens
and night soil wastes etc. The process of biogas genera on is called anaerobic diges on (AD) and
salient beneﬁts of biogas technology are given belowi. It provides clean gaseous fuel for cooking and ligh ng.
ii. Digested slurry from biogas plants is used as enriched bio-manure to supplement the use of
chemical fer lizers.
iii. It improves sanita on in villages and semi -urban areas by linking sanitary toilets with biogas
iv. Biogas Plants help in reducing the causes of climate change.
Poten al of Geothermal Energy
Jharkhand has the good reservoir of geothermal energy in its earth's interior, whose surface
manifesta ons are the steaming grounds and hot springs. The hot springs in Peninsular Shield of
Jharkhand are located along a zone running more or less parallel to Damodar Valley Coalﬁeld, i.e.
along faulted boundaries.
In Jharkhand the thermal springs are found in Ta a- Jarom of Palamu district and Surajkund, Duari,
Bagodar of Hazaribag district. The Ta a spring occurs within the Gondwana rocks and Jarom
occurs within Proterozoic rocks. The temperature of the thermal discharge at Jarom is 50 degree c.
(cen grade) to 57 degree c. while at Ta a it varies from 61 degree c. to65 degree c. in diﬀerent
spouts. All the thermal springs in Hazaribagh district are grouped in Damodar valley graben
Study conducted by NIT Durgapur found nega ve environment impact of geothermal power plant
is almost negligible and greenhouse gas emission is almost zero. Moreover maintenance cost is
low and the land requirement is less in compare to conven onal solar power plant or wind power
plant of capacity of 500 kW. Geothermal Power Plants can remains on line 97% and it can supply
the base load power. Since India has more than 300 hot springs, the country may think about this
renewable energy sources. Presently geothermal power plants are in opera on in 24 countries
throughout the globe, however unfortunately there is no such a plant in India ll the date. The
es mated temperature of the geothermal reservoir of the Bakreswar–Tantloi is around 82-39 °C.
This proves that the test site has poten al for the explora on of geothermal energy which can be
further u lized to generate electricity. It is noteworthy that there is already a thermal power plant
(1050 MW) at Muthabaria within 8km from the proposed site of the geothermal power plant. The
problems related to CO2 emissions from the exis ng thermal power plant and the coal ash that is
being accumulated in the ash ponds (crea ng environmental hazard) can be mi gated to certain
extent by harnessing the geothermal resources in this area. This is high me for India to think
about development of geothermal power plant as a poten al renewable energy resource.
Development Projects under JREDA
No Type of System
1 GCRT Project (MWp)
GCRT Project (No of Building)
2 Solar Pump (No. of Unit)
3 Solar Street Light Pump (No. of Unit)
4 Solar Highmast, Pump (No. of Unit)
5 Rural electriﬁca on of village through solar
mini/microgrid & solar stand alone Pump (No. of
H/H Electriﬁca on under SAUBHAGYA Scheme Pump
6 (No. of Unit)
FY 2016- FY 2017- FY 2018- FY 2019- Cumula ve Capacity
/ Installa on
Table 3.4: Development in projects running under JREDA
Interface with Diﬀerent Stakeholders: A Prac cal Reﬂec on
SAR includes the study and recommenda ons from the baseline survey which was conducted in
the month of August 2019. The purpose of a baseline study is to provide an informa on base
against which to monitor and assess an ac vity's progress and eﬀec veness during
implementa on and a er the ac vity is completed. The current study specially focuses on
advoca ng the current issues towards accessing the CES and s mulates policy and program level
ini a ves for improving the reach of CES in rural tribal areas. The ﬁndings of the study will be used
for evidence-based advocacy from the grassroots with tribal people to enhance their know-how
and capacity on usage of CES up to the state l in crea ng enabling environment for promo on of
CES would engender posi ve poli cal commitment for promo on of CES at all levels. Showcasing
and demonstra ng proven rights based models at the grassroots will have rippling eﬀect across
the decision making agencies in the target area.
Process of interface
Selec on of the Study Area
The baseline was done in the 4 intensive blocks from 4 districts of RACE interven on area in
Jharkhand. In the selected blocks 70 % of the total popula ons are Tribes. Those include Munda,
Oraon, and Primi ve tribes. Total 63 villages and 2392 House Holds were shortlisted and selected
for the study. The details of district, block and Organiza on is as followsSI.No
data collec on
Table 4.1 Baseline study Loca on and Organiza on
Table 4.2 Distribu on of baseline study The project is planned to cover more than 350 villages from
4 blocks during the 5 year tenure. But for baseline stage, it was planned to cover 20% of the total
villages in a par cular block for direct interview. This comes as 63 villages in total for all the four
intensive blocks. For FGD, ﬁve villages each were taken for every block.
No of Villages
FGD GS & SHG
Table 4.2 Distribu on of baseline study
Sampling Technique and Selec on & Sample size
The study planned to adopt Random and Cluster probability sampling techniques. The general rule
for selec on was taken as 20 percent of the total.
Sample size determina on is the act of choosing the number of observa ons or replicates to
include in a sta s cal sample, the probability that the sample accurately reﬂects the a tude of the
popula on. Although it is a subset, it is representa ve of the popula on and suitable for research
in terms of cost, convenience, and me. The sample size for house hold survey is as follows:
Total no of
Panchayat & Villages
No of Sample
(20% of total)
Table 4.3 Panchayat and Village distribu on
Instruments for Data Collec on
· Direct observa on : it reﬂected that solar pump are beneﬁcial, its advantage are less known
to individuals, even if they adopt,the main problem is in its maintenance
· Ques onnaire for Household Survey
· Ques onnaire for Focus Discussion
· Demographic features
· Unstructured Interviews with other stakeholders
Data Collec on
The exercise was ini ated in the month of July 2019 with the mapping of the target area.
Household lis ng and complete census was done during preparatory phase.
The actual data collec on started in August. The programme managers made ﬁeld visits to the
study area and provided hand holding supports to the ﬁeld inves gators and community
mobilizes. During the visit the research coordinators ensured that the ques onnaire was ﬁlled by
the ﬁeld inves gators while visi ng the Households. Inves gators also used observa on method
and inspec on methods for data collec on. The data was collected through the ques onnaire and
was ﬁlled on the spot using pencils and pens. The data collec on was also done through focused
group discussions with SMC, SHG& Gram Sabha& Household and village survey as per the
Processing of Data
Data collec on of the Households survey & FGDs was completed by the 22 of August 2019. The
completed formats were sent by the program persons to LEADS where the Research Coordinator
compiled the formats from each block and prepared for the data entry. A master sheet for the data
entry of HH survey and FGD was separately prepared for all the blocks in Microso Excel Sheet.
Data entry was done by all the partners and Data management (including translation) was done by
Data Entry started on 23 of August 2019 and it took 10 days to complete the data entry process.
Simultaneously, the all ﬁeld staﬀs and program persons communicated in case the data sheets
were unﬁlled and una ended areas were tried to ﬁll. Through this informa on were collected and
data entry process was completed.
Method of Data analysis
Data analysis was carried out in Microso Excel on the basis of the master sheet prepared for the
data entry. The analysis sheet/data entry sheet resembles the survey instrument (ques onnaire).
A er the data entry and compila on, data analysis was carried out in block wise. Separate sheet
was used for the analysis of direct interview & FGDs wise. The analyzed data were interpreted in
the table formats and Graphs.
Findings and Data Analysis
The area under study consisted of mostly nulcear families with three-quater being nuclear in
almost all districts. The data showed this percentage being 87.9% for Ranchi, 73.3% for Simdega,
73.6% for Khun and 68% in Gumla district. These numbers are concurrent with the level of
development in these districts. Families are mostly patriarchal and women headed families are
Popula on in these areas is mostly tribal with nearly three quater representa on. Area under
study in Simdega had 65% popula on as tribals, whereas Khun had 76.1% tribal people, Ranchi
had 78.9% tribals and Gumla had 94.1% tribals. Scheduled castes and other backward classes too
formed signiﬁcant numbers in these districts.
Economically as well, the area appears to be rela vely backward, with 58% popula on in Gumla
registered as BPL, numbers being 62.7% in Simdega while Ranchi and Khun had 75.9% and 85%
registered as BPL, respec vely. Thus,the area showed socio-economic backwardness recognised
by the government data as well.
The sex ra os are quite even in the districts being almost equal. The popula on is mostly young,
with under 18 years being 40.9% in Khun , 40.77% in Simdega, 36.86% in Ranchi and 39.61% in
Gumla district. Thus, high demographic devidend is clearly visible in the study area.
Educa onal A ainment
On the educa onal a ainment the districts appear quite backward, with illiteracy being
signiﬁcantly high for both male and females. The numbers being 18.1% males and 27% females in
Khun , whereas in Simdega this number is 21.4% and 32.5%, Ranchi had 27.2% illiterate males and
42% females as illiterate whille Gumla had 34.9% males and 43.4% illiterate females. Thus, even in
illiteracy females have greater numbers. Just 2.2% males and 1.6% females in Khun have
gradua on or post gradua on degree, whereas these numbers are 4.24% and 3.11% for Simdega,
5.2% and 4.6% for Ranchi and 2.9% and 3.4% in Gumla district. Thus, the data signify the
backwardness in educa onal a ainment of these districts.
The popula on is agriculture depedent with 58.9% in Khun , 52.8% in Simdega, 36.4% and 64.6%
in Gumla engaged in aricultural ac vity for their livelihood. Other source of income being labour
with numbers being 36.9% in Khun , 43.9% in Simdega, 51.1% in Ranchi and 31.6% in Gumla.
Service sector and business employs miniscule popula on.
The area under study showed
extreme backwardness in the
availability of electricity in
these districts. Nearly 90% of
the study area received less
than 12 hours electricity per
day. These ﬁgures in percen le
are 96.4% for Khun , 96.62%
for Simdega, 91.7% for Ranchi,
and 85.4% in Gumla. Thus,
though electricity penetra on
has increased in Jharkhand
availability throughout the day
h a s b e e n a l o n g d re a m .
Figure 4.1 Average Hours of Electricity Availability
unavailability of electricity, lantern, charging lamp, inverters etc are employed to provide power.
73.61% in Khun use lantern/dhibri to light up, where as 86.58% Simdega use it, in Ranchi 80.62%
popula on employ dhibri/lantern to light a er dark where as 85.37% in Gumla use it for work a er
sunset and before sunrise.
Fuel Sources Employed for Ligh ng
Most of the popula on
employs wood for cooking
food. In Khun 61.63% of
popula on use wood for
cooking whereas this no is
55.39% in Simdega, 72.86% in
Ranchi and 88.34% in Gumla
district. Percentage of
popula on employing gas for
cooking is 37.76%, 44.51%,
25.67%, 11.65% for these
districts respec vely. Thus,
there exists extensive scope
for employing clean cooking
solu ons in these areas.
Figure 4.2 Sources Used for Ligh ng
Fuel Sources for Cooking
The studied districts were
found to be using mostly
tradi onal methods of
cooking. Wood seems to be
the most prevalent form of
fuel for cooking. It accounted
for 88.3% in Gumla,72.9% at
Ranchi, 61.6% in Khun and
55.4% in Simdega district. Use
of LPG has also been quite high
in the studied area,; being
44.6% in Simdega, 37.8% in
Figure 4.3 Fuels used for Cooking
Khun , 25.7% in Ranchi and
11.7% in Guumla. Other souces suchas Coal, heater, stove, cowdung too are used but are rela vely
Water Source for Drinking
Water usage pa ern in the districts studies too showed grate variance. People depended on
tradi onal souces for their drinking and other domes c needs. For drinking purposes handpumps
and wells suﬃced their needs
mostly. For Khun 76.%,
Siumdega 90.34%, Ranchi
78.1%, and Gumla 75.4%
popula on depended on just
these two sources for their
drinking water supply. To some
degree solar pumps have
penetrated to these districts as
well. Khun with 4.4%,
Simdega 3.92%, Ranchi 6.8%,
And Gumla 11.4% popula on
are sa sfying their drinking
water needs from Solar water
pumps. Other sources being
Figure 4.4 Drinking Water Usage Pa ern
used for sa sfying drinking
water needs are river and canals, supply water, chuwa dari,dobha or ponds. But percentage of
people using them are minuscule.
Water Source for Domes c Usage
For other domes c usage too same sources are being used but the usage percentage showed
variance.Wells con nued to be the most prevalent source, but Ponds and Chuwa/Dari and
river/canals were in greater use. Well usage was 29% in Khun , 35.3% in Simdega, 38.2% in Ranchi
and 30.2% in Gumla. Dobha/pond was in used at 42% in Gumla, 19.17% in Simdega, 19.6% in
Ranchi and 5% in Gumla. River/ canals were used by 14.7% people in Khun , 4.89% in Simdega,
21.3% in Ranchi and 30.5% in
Gumla. Handpumps were
u lised by 7.6% people of
K h u n , 2 5 . 2 % o f
Simdega,11.8% of Ranchi, and
22.2% people of Gumla. Thus ,
water used for drinking and
other domes c purposes were
found to be from diﬀerent
Figure 4.5 Water Usage for Other Domes c Purposes
Water Source for Irriga on
For irriga on purpose the
sources used were li
irriga on, tulu pump,
summersinle, diesel pump,
dang/la a, drip, solar pumps
and some other tradi onal
methods. Diel pumps and tullu
pumps were the most
prominent equipments used
for irriga on. Diesel pumps
were in use by 44.8% in Khun ,
11.5% in Simdega, 25.8% in
Ranchi and 6.9 in Gumla, while
tulu pump for these districts
Figure 4.6 Sources of Irriga on
had the numbers of
10%,25.9%,55.5% and 22.8% respec vely.
Dang/La a too was used signiﬁcantly for irriga on. Solar pumps found semblence in Simdega and
Gumla districts with 2.2% and 0.4%.
Usage of Clean Energy
Usage of clean energy
appliances has seen rise in
recent mes as reﬂected in the
datasets. Appliances like
charging lamps, energy
eﬃcient bulbs, fans, solar
pumps, unna chulha , biogas,
LPG etc are in use in the study
area. Solar charging lamps
were in use by 44.4% people in
Figure 4.5 Water Usage for Other Domes c Purposes
Khun , by 44.6% in Simdega, 25% in Ranchi and 20.4% in Gumla. Solar water were in use by 1.3% in
Khun and 2.8% of the studies popula on in Gumla district.
Awareness on CES in Schools and community
v The FGD held with School management commi ee in 20 sample villages revealed that there
is lack of awareness on clean energy
v No awareness ac vi es are carried out on CES as compared to other issues such as hygiene,
v Very few electrical appliances are in use and the case is even worse for solar equipment
which are defunct due to lack of maintenance
v The SMC members are not aware about the schemes and other sources of ge ng the clean
energy equipments allo ed
v Solar deep boreing is installed in 12 out of 20 villages
v Limited exposure of community members on CES related knowledge and Skill building
Health eﬀects of air and water
v The FGD held with SHG & Gram Sabha in 20 sample villages Revealed that people are aware
and aﬀected by the hazards of using conven onal source of energy
v Disease related to Eyes & Lungs are mostly aﬀec ng the people
This ac on revealed that more than 70% of the rural tribal people are s ll facing abject energy
poverty. Aside the biomass, kerosene usage is the only other alterna ve, which is costly, not easily
available and poses several health and
environment hazards. And despite
connec on to the energy grid of a large
sec on of the rural residents, they s ll suﬀer
power outage as a result of voltage
ﬂuctua on issues and frequent breakage of
power lines due to heavy storm, especially
during rainy season. Being a tribal
dominated area, the people are mostly
engaged and focused towards sustaining
their daily livelihoods. As a consequence,
there is poor awareness and u liza on of
Government programs and schemes related
to Clean Energy Solu ons (CES) meant for
the people to meet their energy demands. Lack of focused ini a ves on CES both by NGOs and
Government has resulted in poor grassroots mobiliza on and there are very few rights based
forums, pla orms and networks that advocate for clean energy as a right of an individual. The
tribal welfare schemes are also yet to beneﬁt the people at. The delivery mechanism and systems
are not properly responding to ensure clean energy promo on and that there is absence of a
strong collec ve voice for a rac ng energy programs.
Glimpses of Case Studies and Models that can be Adopted
Solar-based village electriﬁca on-pilot public–private–people partnership
project: U ar Pradesh
There are 80,000 unelectriﬁed villages in India out of which 18,000 are remote villages. To li
millions of people out of poverty and avoid migra on to ci es, the development of rural
economies is extremely important. Access to energy is a cri cal component in this regard.
The aim was to gain further experience with technical, ﬁnancial, and organiza onal issues related
to the scaling up of village electriﬁca on through renewable energy in rural areas.
This project was an a empt to demonstrate the a rac veness of solar power for those most in
need of it. Scatec Solar built two pilot projects in two villages of India. Iinvestments to the
renewable energy sector, the Norwegian and Indian governments decided to form a PPPP
(private–public–people partnership) and set up another 28 village SPV Solar Photovoltaic) plants
as a pilot project.
The project involved installa on and opera on of CSPPs (community solar power plants) in 28
villages in four states in India: U ar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Jammu and Kashmir.
A total of 290 kWp has been installed serving approximately 1300 families, with the size of each
CSPP ranging from 4 kWp to 25 kWp.
In addi on to ligh ng the houses, electricity was made available for commercial ac vi es also, in
certain cases. The projects in Jharkhand provided electricity to silk reeling centres.
The partnership comprised MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India)
and the Norad as funding agencies; the private company Scatec Solar as the project implementer;
and IREDA (Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency) as the monitoring agency. The
approach adopted for implementa on of the project included the following.
Worked with local NGOs as a door opener into villages. The NGOs organized a number of
mee ngs (over several months) for raising awareness among the villagers to par cipate in
the project under the PPPP model and explained to them the objec ves and beneﬁts of
The NGOs also carried out the needs assessment of the community – 'bo omup
approach' – and thus an es ma on of the required load for diﬀerent villages.
The project a empted to secure proper opera ons and maintenance through local
ownership. In all villages, VCECs (Village Clean Energy Commi ees) have been formed,
with varying number of members in total and varying number of female members
The VCEC members were in general selected by the villagers.
The kerosene lamps used earlier caused respiratory and eye problems. Introduc on of electricity
has had a clear posi ve health eﬀect on the household.
Children are able to do their school homework and study in the evenings. This is claimed
to have resulted in be er marks in school examina ons.
The TV is bringing entertainment, news from the world, and educa onal programmes to
the villagers, which is very posi ve. Following the commercials, some villagers now want
more household appliances such as coolers and refrigerators. They have also become
more aware of their own social standing as compared to people/socie es seen on TV.
Available electric light helps women to cook food in the evening, not during day as
previously. The evening meals served are thus 'straight from the pot' meaning be er
quality 'fresher' food.
Installa on of fans makes heat more bearable and helps avoid insect and mosquitoes. The
lights make it easier to spot insects inside the house at night.
Streetlights have made walking outdoor a er dark safer. Streetlights have also reduced
the number of the s.
As electricity has enabled pumping of water, girls do not have walk long distances to
collect water. Use of water will also inevitably increase with such systems, and thus
hygiene standards in the households will evidently improve.
In some villages, the value of land has increased, becoming more a rac ve to
immigrants. MNRE and Norad conducted a review of the project in late 2011 to assess the
installa on of projects as per plans. The review team observed that though the project
contributed signiﬁcantly to social outcomes, the business models were not ﬁnancially
viable and needed further introspec on. Learning from this pilot project will be very
useful to be considered while developing such projects in future. Some of these are as
The local governments were not involved in the project in 116 empowering rural India, so
the implementa on of the CSPPs was not coordinated with other electricity installa on
in the villages.
Building the grid infrastructure as well as providing con nuous system up me, also a er
sundown, is excessively expensive with PV; a hybrid solu on would be more cost
Small systems are not bankable, hence business model innova on coupled with easily
accessible support schemes is the prerequisite for success.
World Largest Solar Steam Cooking System at Tirumala, AP
The Solar Steam Cooking System at Tirumala, Andhra Pradesh deﬁnitely ﬁnds a men on among
the most noteworthy ini a ves in solar energy as it is the largest of its kind in the world. Tirumala
Tirupathi Devasthanam (TTD) in Andhra Pradesh is one of the most popular pilgrimage places in
India. People from all over the country and abroad come over to receive the blessings of Lord
Tirupa Balaji, the main deity at the temple.
The temple authori es provide food for huge number of devotees' everyday at the temple.
However, they had to contend with the problem of fuel shortage and electricity in this process.
Then the authori es resolved this problem with the help of solar power. They set up a huge solar
steam cooking system in the temple premises. The solar steam cooking system installed by the
Tirumala Tirupathi Devasthanam (TTD) at Tirumala in Andhra Pradesh has the ability to prepare
food for 15,000 people / day. This ingenious system uses automa c tracking solar dish
concentrators that convert water into high-pressure steam. The steam thus generated is u lized
for cooking at TTD. The authori es have linked the system with the exis ng diesel boiler to ensure
that the system's usability and reliability under all clima c condi ons. The system designed to
produce over 4000 kgs of steam/day at 180 degree cen grade and 10 kg/sq cm is adequate to cook
two meals for approximately 15,000 persons. Its installa on was accomplished in September 2002
and was launched on 11th October 2002
The system can save around 1,18,000litres of diesel per year, valued at Rs2,30,00,000. The total
cost of the solar cooking system was about Rs. 110 million and was installed by M/s Gadhia Solar
Energy Systems, Valsad under a demonstra on scheme of MNES with 50% ﬁnancial support. The
rest of the cost was borne by the TTD trust. The success of this system has led to the installa on of 6
such systems in the country. This technology is very useful at places where rice is the staple food
and cooking is done on a very large scale. This technology is another instance of exemplary use of
solar energy on a large scale.
The ﬁrst solar kitchen only village in India: A case study from MP
Betul, Madhya Pradesh: Bancha in Betul district is the ﬁrst village in India to have zero wooden
stoves and almost no use for LPG cylinders with all its 75 houses relying on solar-powered stoves to
meet their cooking needs.
Suppor ng Hand
"There are places in India where solar plates are used sporadically for cooking, but with the help of
a team from IIT Mumbai, a special solar stove was developed. No trees are cut by the villagers now
for ligh ng their stoves. The Central government's decision to choose Bancha has changed has set
an example which can be replicated to make other villages smoke and pollu on free".
A NGO oﬃcial said that the project of installing solar power plates, ba eries and stoves in all the 74
houses was started in September 2017 and got completed by December 2018.
Present Situa on
Harvind, a villager, who had beneﬁ ed from the scheme said that they are now able to cook their
food without hassles and it has also brought electricity to their homes."We can now cook our
meals within half an hour and that too without the tension of smoke. We also don't have to go
anymore to the jungles for picking twigs and branches for the wooden stoves," said Harvind.
JamunaBai, a lady from the village termed it as a big development which has changed the lives of
children and women across the village.
"Earlier our eyes used to burn while cooking meals, it was due to all the smoke. Our children too
had to be sent to jungles instead of schools but the situa on has changed now. We all get me for
ourselves and the kids can study now," JamunaBai said.
The success story of Bancha is an eye opener which shows the poten al of renewable energy. Not
only will it help the na on economically but will also prove to work wonders for the environment if
implemented across India.
Roof-Top SPV Systems Catch- Up: VidyutSaudha Building in Hyderabad and The
Bikalp Shak Bhavan, Kolkata
A roo op grid-interac ve SPV power system can meet the par al load during peak demand of a
building and supply grid-quality power to the u lity when power is not required on holidays.
Atypical grid-interac ve system comprises SPV modules, which supply electrical power to the load
through a high-quality inverter.
The inverter converts the direct current (DC) generated by SPV to grid-quality alterna ng current
(AC). When the SPV system produces more power than is needed in the load area, the excess
power can be sold to the u lity.
During 2001-02 ﬁve projects with an aggregate capacity of 275 kWp were commissioned. This
brings the total roof-top systems installed up to February 2002 to nine. In addi on two roo op
systems are under installa on. Among the projects commissioned during the year are those at the
VidyutSaudha Building in Hyderabad and at the Bikalp Shak Bhavan in Kolkata.
The West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency (WBREDA) has set up the Kolkata
project, which has a capacity of 25 kWp. WBREDA has entered into an Energy Adjustment
Agreement with the West Bengal State Electricity Board, under which the WBREDA would pay net
Abi-direc onal import-export energy meter keeps a record of the net energy consump on by the
WBREDA and the electricity charges are based on net energy consump on at Bikalp Shak Bhawan
Co-genera on - Bagasse based Cogenera on System
A17 MW co-genera on power project set up by M/s Kaka ya Cement Sugar & Industries Ltd in
2002 at Per-uvancha village, KallurMandal, Khammam District, Andhra Pradesh.
The project is the ﬁrst of its kind for a sugar mill. A high pressure boiler of 87 ata/515 deg C has been
installed, which ensures high energy eﬃciency & be er u liza on of bagasse resul ng in more
steam and hence more electricity.
The project envisages genera on of power to meet cap ve sugar plant requirements, cement
plant requirements and export of about 10.85 MW of surplus power during season and 14.70 MW
during oﬀ-season to the State grid.
The project uses bagasse generated from the crushing opera ons of the sugar mill during season,
and stored bagasse, cane trash and coal during oﬀ-season.
The project was completed in a record period of 18 months. It achieved a PLF of around 90% in the
very ﬁrst year.
The cost of the co-genera on project was Rs. 501.7 million. The technology used was indigenous,
except for the turbo-generator, which was improved.
⁵ The area of Earth located in between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn is called the tropical (torrid) zone
The project has generated direct employment opportuni es to about 100 persons and has also
contributed to economic development of the area imported
Barefoot College and Solar Mamas¹⁰
Since the year of its founding, 1972, Barefoot College has trained for six months in India more than
800 women coming from remote communi es of 73 diﬀerent countries. Since 2015 a new center
where trainee women train other women has been opened in Zanzibar to prevent women from
travelling to much and another center is under construc on in Burkina Faso.
Having developed the poten al to become agents of change in their respec ve countries, the
'solar mamas' are trained as in- house solar engineering prom. They have helped turn rural wisdom
into a fountainhead for development. It is supported by Ministry of External Aﬀairs.
These barefoot solar engineers rarely have formal educa on, but the dedica on to work for their
village is a must in them. So the college narrows its choice of trainees to women who are middleaged and older, as they are least likely to move out of the village. A young woman, on the other
hand, o en leaves her village a er marriage. So also the men, who are likely to scout for be er
opportuni es outside the village a er receiving the training.
From solar energy to health, and from rural water supply to educa on, the Barefoot College taps
the poten al of local villagers to ﬁnd solu ons to a range of needs. Having a be er understanding
of local problems, they are be er able to help fellow villagers and are accountable to their
community. A er a six-month training, the solar mamas are adept at assembling solar lamps,
relying on color codes and symbols to guide them. The hands-on prac cal training equips them
with skills that include fabrica on of charge controllers and inverters, core winding, printed circuit
boards, tes ng, wiring, installa on of solar panels, and repair and maintenance of the lamps.
These barefoot engineers have lighted up villages using solar energy not only in the remote areas
of Ladakh, Barmer and Sikkim in India but also in Bhutan, Afghanistan and about 20 countries in
Africa. As the movement spreads, its products are diversifying. The parabolic solar cooker is fast
becoming popular, and a 'Women Barefoot Solar Cooker Engineers Society' has been registered by
the rural women who manufacture them. This environment-friendly, cost-eﬀec ve, day me
cooker has an in-built spring and clock system that can be accurately set to complete one rota on
in a ﬁxed me; this, in turn, rotates the cooker to track the sun's movement and catch the sunlight
on the reﬂectors throughout the day.
Suggestions and Recommendations
LEADS is working with European Union for pro people clean energy policy support to Government
of Jharkhand, since 1 April 2019. These sugges ons and recommenda ons have been, made on
the basis of deep involvement with rural areas of Jharkhand and studying all possible documents
at state level besides our various interac on with diﬀerent stakeholders which have been
elaborately discussed in the relevant chapters. Rela ng to this, SDG-7, aims to “Ensure Access to
Aﬀordable, Reliable, Sustainable and Modern Energy for All” is one of the major concerns to be
properly addressed in Jharkhand as state has abundant poten al for solar energy. These
sugges ons and recommenda on are in the light of the Global Commitments and possible local
ac ons of State and how we can contribute in realisa on of SDG-7.
In this context, growing environmental concern about fossil fuel-based electricity genera on and
increasing price has turned the de in favour of producing electricity using eco-friendly energy
sources worldwide. The sources of electricity produc on such as coal, oil, and natural gas have
contributed to one-third of global greenhouse gas emissions. It is essen al to raise the standard of
living by providing cleaner and more reliable electricity. India has an increasing energy demand to
fulﬁl the economic development plans that are being implemented.
According to the World Resource Ins tute (WRI) Report 2017, India is responsible for nearly 6.65%
of total global carbon emissions, ranked fourth next to China (26.83%), the USA (14.36%), and the
EU (9.66%). Climate change might also change the ecological balance in the world. Intended
Na onally Determined Contribu ons (INDCs) have been submi ed to the United Na ons
Framework Conven on on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Paris Agreement. The la er has
hoped to achieve the goal of limi ng the rise in global temperature to well below 2 °C.
Jharkhand a state carved out of Bihar in 2000, with 32 million popula ons as per 2011 census, has
achieved 100 per cent rural electriﬁca on, with electricity reaching all households in the 24
districts. With 75 per cent of the popula on dependent on agriculture, the thrust on rural
electriﬁca on has delivered results. A Central Electricity Authority report says average daily
power supply to the agriculture sector is 20 hours a day in Jharkhand. But the ground reali es
found in rural electriﬁca on and quality of electricity is stark. The power supply has crippled lives
of people in rural area of Jharkhand. Our base line survey in its ﬁnding found that quality of
electricity is poor as electricity supply lasts only 4 to 5 hours in a day (or even less). During rainy
season, some mes it takes 5-6 days to restore the supply disrupted because of thundering. The
schemes like Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana (Saubhagya) and Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala
Yojana (PMUY), Pradhan Mantri Kisan Urja Suraksha U han Mahabhiyan(PM-KUSUM ) etc. have
not found their reach to the beneﬁciaries. In absence of dedicated staﬀ for clean energy at state
level, the ini a ves for the same central scheme gets fragmented among various sec ons of the
government. We feel Government of India and government in Jharkhand should work in
collabora on to implement me bound program with quality in a me bound manner. The state
has showed a con nuous fall in its renewable power obliga ons since 2017 and has been 0 for the
year 2017 from the data of JREDA. Similarly schemes for subsidy for roof-top solar, of mini-grid
aren't in place reﬂec ng shortcomings of the state policy and commitment. The document hereby
enlists sugges ons at various levels both at policy level as well as implementa on level to not just
contribute to INDC but also provide the popula on with aﬀordable, accessible and reliable source
of clean energy solu on to improve their lives.
With 75.95% rural popula on in Jharkhand as per 2011 census, got its all households electriﬁed by
December 31, 2018. But the data of NSSO are quite surprising where it says 90% of the households
consume less than 100 units of electricity and between 15-20% households consume less than 30
units of electricity per month. Electricity consump on has become an indicator to measure
development, and the data above speaks for itself that a lot needs to be done to ensure
accessibility, availability, quality and con nuous supply of energy to the rural tribal popula on
which is note the case at present. Electricity from clean energy source can be panacea for great
many solu ons to rural problems, from environmental sustainability to development to improved
ü According to Ini a ve for Sustainable Energy Policy's (ISEP) report of 2020, nearly 13% of
the household are not yet connected to electricity-grid. Thus, electrical connec vity of
these households either to the grid or through standalone grids needs to be ensured.
ü Reliability and quality of electricity has been an issue for the rural households. In general
power outages are quite high and in adverse weather condi ons the villages remain
without power for days.
ü With severe power ﬂuctua ons chances of electrical devices ge ng short-circuits or over
all damage is quite high.
ü Households which are too remote can be provided with mini-grid connec vity through
ü Billing has been a signiﬁcant issue in the rural areas of even the ci es. Bills are not
generated regularly, neither all the households have metered connec ons, thus they have
to pay huge bills of late ﬁne with compounded interest at mes when they are in no
posi on to pay the bills. Thus, all households need to be connected to metered power and
shall be provided with regular bill payments.
ü Alterna ve Usage - Households provided with large solar equipment like solar water
pumps shall have the provision for using the excess power from the solar plates to be used
for alterna ve purposes like household ligh ngs.
Alternate Ligh ng
ü From the baseline study conducted by LEADS as well as various other studies it was found
that inadequate and unreliable electricity supply results into con nued use of kerosene for
ligh ng in the rural areas which is distributed through PDS. This supply is insuﬃcient for a
family's needs and is fulﬁlled from the market bought at high price thus adding to the
burden of family. Prolonged use has also resulted into reduced study hours and visual
impairments among children. Availability of solar powered emergency lights and
mechanism of ﬁnancial feasibility to get them needs to be made available for the rural
ü Community ligh ng can be ensured from solar powered community infrastructure like
solar water pump, panchayat bhavans, schools, street lights etc.
Clean Cooking Fuel
With 75.95% rural popula on, 29.21% tribal popula on, and 29.62% forest cover a signiﬁcant
popula on uses wood, animal waste, coal, plant residue etc. as cooking fuel. This is not just
ineﬃcient but is a source of indoor pollu on. Thus, both LPG and alterna ve cleaner cooking fuel
shall be the approach to address the issue.
ü LPG connec on has reached the availability but not even one-third of the rural popula on
uses them, as they aren't economical for reﬁlling, distance of reﬁlling sta on, hesita on
due to safety, old habits of using ﬁrewood, etc. Thus, all these issues need to be addressed
through involving CSOs to ensure that Ujjwala Yojna beneﬁts are not limited to providing
gas connec on and ﬁrst cylinder itself rather they are in con nuous use.
ü Smokeless Chulha; as an alterna ve to the tradi onal chulha has found wide acceptance as
it reduces the ﬁrewood consump on by one-third as well as emits the smoke out of the
house thus preven ng indoor pollu on.
ü Mul purpose use of solar powered community infrastructures like solar water pump for
processing rice or ﬂour mill during day me, solar powered panchayat bhavan for libraries
at night for computer, printer etc. for providing alternate sources of livelihoods
ü Jharkhand is rich in its animal capital, which can be used for installing small biogas plants
using animal, plant and household wastes.
Livelihood through CES
Clean energy solu ons are the founda ons of transforma on of the lives of rural popula on,
which covers household, irriga on, ligh ng, cooking, manufacturing, farm produce processing
etc. Along with providing CES for various energy needs like, solar water pumps under KUSUM
scheme, smokeless chulha or LPG for cooking, solar powered po er's wheel, sewing machines etc.
can be made available to rural masses along with easier ﬁnancial linkages with the banks to
improve their living situa ons and improve their sources of earnings.
ü Food processing units like ragi processing mills, pulse processing plants rice husking plants
etc. operated on solar power can be established which would add value to agriculture
produce thus enhancing their income and improving their living standard.
ü Solar water irriga on pumps shall be provided with alternate usage like house ligh ng and
even power other smaller machines like fans for iron smith to be mul dimensional in
ü Skill of youth and villagers needs to be raised in par cular with solar equipment as clean
energy is the new green ﬁeld for opportunity and with increasing amount of equipment at
village level maintenance demands too would raise. It also provides an opportunity for
entrepreneurship promo on in CES.
ü Solar driers and solar powered cold storage too need to be promoted to add value to
agriculture and provide alternate source of livelihood, and use these CES to develop agro
based industries in the state as Jharkhand is one of the largest green vegetable suppliers in
the eastern part of our country.
Rural Economic Hub Promo on
Similar to Special Economic Zones at na onal level, for promo on of rural livelihood as well as
sustained use of these capital-intensive devices there needs to be promo on of rural economic
hubs running on solar power along with grid connec vity wherein power is available for all rural
economic purposes suppor ng ac vi es like agro-based industries, processing and packaging
ac vi es, cold storage facili es, etc. They should be developed as models for a rac on of more
and more rural entrepreneurs to pool in their resources and develop as a common hub. Realisa on
of poten al of economic ac vi es have remained restricted in villages because of the lack of
reliable electricity which can be solved by these rural economic hubs. Various ac vi es conducive
to the geo-clima c condi on of the village or a cluster of villages can be promoted through these
hubs and solar energy can be harness and u lised in realising this.
Community Infrastructure Solarisa on
Community infrastructure can serve as a beacon of change if they are source of 24*7 ligh ng
sources through solarisa on under various schemes of the government at greater scale. Places like
panchayat bhavan, schools, PHCs, street lights, can be solarised to ensure the village remains lit
irrespec ve of grid's performance.
Response Needed at Block and District
Systemic Interven ons
ü Clean energy projects are distributed among various departments of the government
because of which a synergy for clean energy is missing. For example, some of solar water
pumps have been installed in Jharkhand under Kusum Scheme of JREDA and some others
have been installed by Jharkhand State Livelihood Promo on Society, JSLPS.
ü O en clean energy interven ons are looked as just targets to be achieved in any ﬁnancial
year and is looked at extra burden over the nodal oﬃcers. Thus, a dedicated pool of staﬀ
needs to be put in districts to ensure clean energy ini a ves are implemented holis cally.
ü Commi ees cons tuted at district level for renewable energy are adhoc commi ees and
o en cons tutes only government bodies. To realize the projects and their melines for
implementa on these commi ees can be made permanent and they can be associated
with CSOs to ensure mely implementa on.
ü Maintenance of database of all the ac vi es as well as real me monitoring and
transparency of it goes a long way in building conﬁdence among the masses as well as
ensure smooth and mely implementa on of the projects for example, for KUSUM scheme
dra s for solar pumps were submi ed in 2019-20 itself but no follow up has been done ll
now and if beneﬁciary's requests were approved or if they would get pumps is unknown.
ü Dedicated staﬀ at block level for maintenance of this solar equipment is a must to ensure
that the a empts of transforma on into cleaner energy are not ones-shot event but a
Ins tu onal Solarisa on
To realise the commitment made via Paris Agreement, low hanging fruits like solarisa on of
government ins tu ons like secretariats, public hospitals, courts, railway sta ons, bus sta ons,
post oﬃces, schools and colleges, etc. need to be achieved ﬁrst. Till date JREDA has achieved rooftop solar of nearly 80 MW but most of these are limited to a few ci es. These transforma ons at
block and district levels would serve as model of a rac on and replica on by common popula on.
Policy Sugges ons for State
To develop an environment conducive to clean energy a favourable policy guideline needs to be
put in place. Jharkhand state's policy for renewables have been lagging behind in several aspects.
Jharkhand Renewable Energy Development Authority (JREDA) works as an extension to Ministry
of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India. Thus, most of the program and projects are
central government projects to which the state government lacks enthusiasm. They are seen more
as targets to be achieved rather than as a commitment for be erment of lives of the people. For
instance, Renewable Purchasing Obliga ons (RPO) for the distribu on companies are seen as
burden over them and thus can be seen from the performance of DISCOMS where it has not been
fulﬁlling its RPO for all the years. Policy formula on on several aspects like state's solar policy,
biofuels, mini-grid, roof top solar, waste to energy policy etc. are s ll in the process of
development where as na onal policies post Paris commitment has been in place for more than 6
years now. Thus, to ensure adop on of clean energy there needs to be provision of dedicated fund
as well as clear deﬁni on within the budgetary provisions to show the intent.
Distribu on Companies (DISCOMs)
Major reforms are, required to ensure that DISCOMs support Renewable Energy (RE). The key
reforms required are as follows:
ü Fixing a minimum percentage of power to be procured by (DISCOMs) – Renewable
Purchase Obliga ons (RPOs). By 2019-20, 15 per cent of the electricity purchased by
DISCOMs in India should be from Renewable Energy (RE). If India has to achieve its target of
175 GW of RE by 2022, then about 16 per cent of the electricity consumed in the country
has to be derived from RE by as early as 2019-20. However, compliance with the RPO
targets is the big concern in the backdrop of no penalty/disincen ve.
ü Allow compe on at the distribu on end. The distribu on infrastructure can s ll be owned
by the state monopolies (ideally these should also be moved to private operators or to
public-private partnerships), but the sale of electricity to consumers must be opened to
compe on. This would lead to be er collec on eﬃciency, lower Aggregate Technical and
Commercial (AT&C) losses, lower poli cal interference and improved opera onal
parameters and ﬁnancial health of the distribu on segment. The state can s ll subsidize
the poor by directly transferring the subsidy to consumers or the companies.
ü Decentralized renewable energy consumers must pay for using the infrastructure and also
to cross-subsidies poor consumers.
Clearly, without reforms at the distribu on end, Jharkhand cannot hope to become a major user of
Along with this, Well-to-do households in Jharkhandget over twice the amount of power subsidies
that poor households receive, says a new study by two think-tanks, the Interna onal Ins tute for
Sustainable Development(IISD) and the Ini a ve for Sustainable Energy Policy (ISEP), released in
2020. Thus, a ra onalisa on of the subsidy process needs to be done in line with the Ujjwala
scheme so that only the needy get the beneﬁts of subsidy which would also be beneﬁcial for
already stressed DISCOMs.
ü The scheme has con nuously missed targets and commitments of 10,000 solar water
pumps have not been achieved even in 2021.Implementa on of the scheme shall be me
bound so that demands raised at villages can be fulﬁlled in the ensuing years.
Target shall be raised in number to prevent migra on and take complete advantage of
irriga on in agriculture.
Systemic issues like transparency of beneﬁciary selec on, progress of submi ed
applica ons, etc. are missing which further slows down the process of implementa on.
Training to farmers of proper use of this equipment is also missing as well as maintenance
of the equipment is not insured.
Local youth should be trained through short course to ensure that this equipment get
repaired at local level as technical persons to provide regular service.
Farmer groups shall be made and their responsibility shall be provided to Agriculture
Technology Management Agency, ATMA for providing technical inputs and take complete
beneﬁt of the scheme by linking various aspects of agriculture.
ü Less than one third of rural popula on has LPG connec on and most of them are not in use.
Thus, focus needs to be on the con nuous use of the cylinders and not just providing
ü Gas reﬁling has been cumbersome for people in remote loca ons. Thus, if greater usage is
ensured then it would become economical even for the gas agencies.
ü Training for proper use, maintenance and safety shall be provided to ensure con nuous
use of LPG.
ü Clear policy guidelines deﬁning subsidies and implementa on process shall be deﬁned
which is presently missing.
ü Clarity about the ﬁnance mechanism shall also be put in place so that the scheme is widely
accepted by the people.
ü Delays in payments to the u lity provider shall be solved to ensured that they in turn don't
delay the implementa on of the scheme.
ü The op on of solar roo op consumer to move to lower tariﬀ slab should be discouraged.
This compromises the DISCOMs not only from the cross-subsidy angle, but also from the
reduc on in ﬁxed charges that is required to maintain the distribu on infrastructure.
The na onal mini-grid policy was dra ed in 2016 but Jharkhand has published two dra mini-grid
policy in 2018 and 2021 and has not yet come out with a clear mini-grid policy for Jharkhand. The
dra policy men ons State government's commitment to support mini and micro grid opera ons
powered by renewable energy throughout the state. The dra policy has a provision for
installa on of Mini grid projects of 1 kWp to 500 kWp capaci es and various hybrid models using a
combina on of renewable sources such as solar, biomass and hydro, etc can be deployed through
government subsidy or private or community funded projects with 'Build Own Operate and
Maintain/Build Own Operate, Maintain and Transfer' (BOOM/BOOMT) basis. JREDA is keen to
provide a conducive atmosphere to a ract more investment, technological innova ons and
demonstra on and create a level playing ﬁeld for all concerned par es to enable energy access in
underserved regions of the state. The much-awaited policy though delayed but looks promising
but implementa on needs to remove the shortcomings already being faced by renewable sector
overall. Associa on of CSOs working on mini-grid and clean energy needs to be associated during
implementa on to ensure mely delivery.
Solar powered Cold- Storage Policy
Jharkhand's geo-clima c and geo-poli cal posi on makes it suitable to produce large quan es of
vegetables. In absence of cold chains there are o en wastage of one- fourth to one-third of the
produce. Simultaneously, it also prevents development of agro-based industries. Though some of
the storages are run by Tata trust and managed by Agricultural and Processed Food Products
Development Authority (APEDA) there remains a lack of guidelines for them from the state.
Through LEADS advocacy along with other stake holders in our state level network, JREDA is se ng
up cold storage on pilot basis in all 24 districts but policy guidelines to own and maintain such cold
storages are s ll missing which government should come out with.
ü Demonstra on of CES in service centers like health, Social and economic centers would
a ract people's gaze who would then in turn be a racted towards adop ng these
alterna ve sources.
ü Proximity of service delivery will ensure CES acceptability among masses. For instance, if
CES are available through single window systems at block and district levels, it would ﬁnd
greater acceptance among the masses.
ü Transparency in delivery mechanism so that people are aware about the sources and funds
which are responsible for installa on of Clean Energy Infrastructure.
Follow Up/Monitoring System
ü Enhance par cipa on and ownership of Panchayat & Community over the infrastructure
and installa ons. This will help towards users control and monitoring
ü It is regular prac ce that once the scheme is implemented, proper follow up is not done.
So, the concern department should take authority for me to me follow up of the
ü To strengthen forums, pla orms and Network of CBOs and CSOs with focus on CES
Block/ District Level Grievance Redressal Cell
ü If the problems related to clean energy usage are mely addressed, the community will
tend to adopt them whole heartedly. Delay in implementa on raises doubts in public
minds and further creates trust deﬁcit with the government.
Recycling of Solar Panel
The Interna onal Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) in 2016 es mated there was about 250,000
metric tons of solar panel waste in the world at the end of that year. IRENA projected that this
amount could reach 78 million metric tons by 2050.
Solar panels o en contain lead, cadmium, and other toxic chemicals that cannot be removed
without breaking apart the en re panel. Today recycling costs more than the economic value of
the materials recovered, that is why most solar panels end up in landﬁlls.
ü The ﬁrst step is a fee on solar panel purchases to make sure that the cost of safely removing,
recycling or storing solar panel waste is internalized into the price of solar panels and not
externalized onto future taxpayers. An obvious solu on would be to impose a new fee on
solar panels that would go into a federal disposal and decommissioning fund. The funds
would then, in the future, be dispensed to state and local governments to pay for the
removal and recycling or long-term storage of solar panel waste. The advantage of this fund
over extended producer responsibility is that it would insure that solar panels are safely
decommissioned, recycled, or stored over the long-term, even a er solar manufacturers
ü Second, the federal government should encourage ci zen enforcement of laws to
decommission, store, or recycle solar panels so that they do not end up in landﬁlls.
Currently, ci zens have the right to ﬁle lawsuits against government agencies and
corpora ons to force them to abide by various environmental laws, including ones that
protect the public from toxic waste. Solar should be no diﬀerent. Given the decentralized
nature of solar energy produc on, and lack of technical exper se at the local level, it is
especially important that the whole society be involved in protec ng itself from exposure
to dangerous toxins.
ü Third, the United Na ons Environment Program's Global Partnership for Waste
Management, as part of its Interna onal Environmental Partnership Center, should more
strictly monitor e-waste shipments and encourage na ons impor ng used solar panels into
secondary markets to impose a fee to cover the cost of recycling or long-term
management. Such a recycling and waste management fund could help na ons address
their other e-waste problems while suppor ng the development of a new, high-tech
industry in recycling solar panels.
Conclusion and Way Forward
ü Lack of focused ini a ves on CES both by NGOs and Government has resulted in poor
grassroots mobiliza on and there are very few rights-based forums, pla orms and
networks that advocate for clean energy as a right of an individual. Thus, to promote clean
energy solu ons, needs synergized eﬀorts from CSOs and diﬀerent government
departments needs to be promoted.
ü The delivery mechanism and systems are not properly responding to ensure clean energy
promo on and that there is absence of a strong collec ve voice for a rac ng energy
programs. Strong poli cal understanding among masses shall be ensued to ensure
transparency and mely implementa on.
ü Policy ini a ves on clean energy as well as the delivery mechanism needs to be improved
and needs to be developed in line with the commitments made as INDC.
ü State Advisory Commi ee cons tu ng diﬀerent departments along with CSOs working for
clean energy shall exist which shall exchange informa on to realize policy objec ves at the
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